This report is based on destination Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country and its capital city is Harare. The main languages spoken are Shona, English and Ndebele. According to Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern Africa (RETOSA) (2017), the population of Zimbabwe is 15,2 million and is 390 757km2. Agriculture, mining and tourism are contributing to the economy of the country to a greater extent. It tourist’s arrivals have grown since 1964 from 198 000 visitors to over 2,4 million (RETOSA, 2017). Visitors in Zimbabwe are mostly from South Africa, America and Europe. In destination Zimbabwe they offer products and services in accommodation, accessibility, amenities, attractions, activities and ancillary services. They would want to increase the market share and this enables them to increase their sales and make profits.
1. Explanation of the principles of destination analysis
· Explain the purpose of destination analysis
According to Monish Limbasia (n.d), the purpose of destination analysis is to determine the pattern of tourism and develop the tourism in the country. The tourist behaviour can also contribute to get conclusions that cannot be gained by the study of resources and market. Destination analysis helps in managing the resources of the destination and also helps in positioning the destination. Destination analysis helps to consider the carrying capacity of the destination. Middleton and Hawkins Chamberlain (1997) defines carrying capacity as “the level of human activity an area can accommodate without the area deteriorating the resident community being adversely affected or the quality of visitor’s experience declining”.
· Explain the principles of data collection and analysis
For destination Zimbabwe the tourism data can be collected either at national level by the National Tourism Organisation (NTO) and for Zimbabwe it’s Zimbabwe Tourism Authority (ZTA) or at regional level which is Southern African Development Committee (SADC) and Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern Africa (RETOSA). There are two types of researches which are primary data collection which uses surveys or direct observations. This will be expensive, it gives much and accurate information. Secondary data collection can be conducted by collecting information from electronic devices and different sources of documents. This is cheap, not accurate and does not give much information.
The data which is collected must be valid that is it should be relevant and acceptable. Also it must be reliable. The data collected must be current that is existing or occurring at the moment. It must be sufficient enough to be used.
Tour operators and travel agents also help in data collection of the destination. They provide number of tour bookings and packages sold to the tourists and number of tourists that bought the package. Also accommodation records played a role in data collection and the records will consist of local, regional and international accommodation occupants.
· Explain how to assess the risks associated with a tourist destination
Roads and bridges were washed-out and some crops were damaged by heavy rains (floodlist.com, 2017).
Leading to the loss of lives, property, livestock, crops and infrastructure like Cyclone Eline in 2000.
Large-scale mining mainly in the Midlands and changes in Kariba Dam water levels were behind the occurrence of earthquakes in 2016 (Debra Matabvu, 2017).
Leading to violence around the cities between protestors and the police.
In Zimbabwe pick-pocketing, bag snatching, theft and carjacking are common.
· Explain the importance of the accessibility of a tourist destination
Accessibility enables tourists to have access to a destination of their choices safely and fast. Accessibility can either be virtual or physical access whereby tourists travel to different destinations regardless of their age or disabilities.
Transport plays an important role of providing links to different destination. Modes of transport which are used in Zimbabwe are air, road and rail transport. Road transport; tourists use taxes, luxury coaches to visit different places of attraction in the destination and it is cheap. Some tourists use road transport from their generating place to Zimbabwe mostly tourists from surrounding countries. Railway transport is effective and it helps to transport heavy tourism goods to and from Zimbabwe. It is also cheap and some people use it to travel around the destination. Also air transport, it is fast, efficient and secure. It can make tourists from different generating regions to have easy access to destination Zimbabwe.
Also internet plays a critical role to access the destination. It provides accurate information about the destination and bookings of flights and accommodation can be done easily.
2. Audits of destination
· Identify the market and competitive environment of a destination
Tourists’ arrivals into Zimbabwe mostly come from Africa hence become the largest source market for Zimbabwe. They mostly visit for leisure, business and visiting friends and relatives. According to Zimbabwe Tourism Authority (ZTA) (2016), arrivals from Africa increased by 11% to 380 790 from 343 644 arrivals in 2015 (Tichaona Kurewa, 2016). Suitable roads and good air networks between Zimbabwe and South Africa made South Africa the greatest source market for tourist arrivals in Zimbabwe. Zambia and Malawi also followed as the market for tourist arrivals in Zimbabwe. Globally, Europe is the second largest source market with 27000 arrivals followed by Americas with 22000 arrivals in Zimbabwe (Tichaona Kurewa, 2016) (see appendix).
Destination Zimbabwe is a landlocked country so they do not provide cruise facilities as compared to South Africa it’s neighbouring country which has cruise facilities and this will lure more tourists into their destination.
· Research the factors that affect tourists’ choice of destination
The factors that affect tourists’ choice of destination include the destination attractiveness.
§ The ability of destination Zimbabwe to meet the needs and wants of the visitors. Accommodation services are offered to tourists either serviced whereby catering is provided or non-serviced which is self-catering. They also offer activities like mountain climbing, skiing. There are many attractions in Zimbabwe which includes natural attractions like the Victoria Falls, Chinhoyi Caves and man-made attractions like the Lake Kariba, Great Zimbabwe. In accessibility there is air transport and surface transport which helps in the movements of tourists and goods from one place to another. The modes of transport in Zimbabwe are air, road and rail transport. Amenities are available which includes shopping malls and health services. Lastly, ancillary services which include travel insurances and airport transfers. This makes tourists to have a comfortable stay in Zimbabwe.
§ The ability of destination Zimbabwe to provide health and safety of the tourists. Tourists are being told about risks in the destination and they would promise the visitors would be protected against the risks.
§ In destination Zimbabwe, products and services are priced according to their quality and it would be acceptable to the tourists.
The purpose of visit of the tourists can affect tourists’ choice of a destination. Some people visit destination Zimbabwe for leisure and they would take part in different activities and viewing different attractions. Some will be travelling for business like meetings, incentive travel, conferences and exhibitions. Also some people visit friends and relatives in Zimbabwe and they do not use most tourism productions like accommodation.
· Analyse the features and strengths of different destinations (access, attractions, accommodation, activities, amenities and ancillary)
In Zimbabwe there are 3 ways of transportation which are road, rail and air transport. In air transport there scheduled flights and the low cost carries like the Fastjet. There are 13 airports in Zimbabwe including 3 international airports. Roads also helps in linking different destinations. There are road ports in most cities and the one in Harare is the largest. Taxis and coaches also takes tourists to different places around Zimbabwe. There is also railway transport; high speed and luxurious trains are there to help in the transportation of people and tourism goods and also railway stations are available around Zimbabwe with planned schedules.
In Zimbabwe there are natural attractions like Chinhoyi Caves, also man-made attractions like the Lake Kariba and cultural attractions like the Great Zimbabwe Ruins. Zimbabwe has the iconic attraction which is the Victoria Falls. Some attractions are designed for tourism purposes for example galleries, museums. Other attractions are designed for events like for arts (HIFA, music concert), business (carnival, sanganai expo) and some are designed for culture like cultural villages.
Accommodation in Zimbabwe ranges from 5-star hotels to basic budget accommodation and it can either be serviced whereby all tourists’ facilities are provided or non-serviced accommodation where it is self-service accommodation. The accommodation sector in Zimbabwe includes hotels, lodges, villas bed and breakfast and many more.
Activities are there to make tourists enjoy their stay in Zimbabwe. There is an adventure activity where tourists would be exploring remote places, mountain climbing and many more. Also water activities that includes swimming, fishing, canoeing. They are other activities such as skiing, horse and elephant riding.
Amenities are facilities that support tourism in the destination like shopping malls, health services. Ancillary services include travel insurance, airport transfers and providers of tourists’ information.
Zimbabwe as a destination it has its strengths. It has the iconic attraction which is the Victoria Falls. Zimbabwe is rich in wildlife and many national parks and this promotes ecotourism in the destination.
· Analyse the stage of destination in the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)
RW Butler proposed the Tourism Area Life Cycle which consist of six stages which are exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline. Exploration is the first stage and it is when a destination is discovered and tourism will be based on natural and cultural attractions. The second stage is the involvement stage when the government and the locals become involved in tourism. Then the development stage, a destination will be receiving large numbers of tourists that may exceed its carrying capacity. In the consolidation stage, the growth of tourism slows but the carrying capacity has been exceeded by the number of tourists. In the stagnation, that’s when tourism causes social, environmental and economic problems. In the final stage, tourism will either decline or rejuvenate. When tourism facilities are replaced by non-tourism activities that will be the decline but when changes are made in favour of tourism then it rejuvenates (see appendix).
Destination Zimbabwe is at the development stage because large numbers of visitors are coming into Zimbabwe. Tarisai Mandizha states that according to the ZTA (2016), overall tourist arrivals in Zimbabwe are 450 572 in 2016. There are large foreign hotels like Holiday Inn. Cultural, natural and man-made attractions have developed and been marketed like the Lake Kariba, Khami Ruins, Nyanga Mountains.
Tourism development benefited the destination in many ways which includes; it generates employment, infrastructure development and foreign currency increases. However, the developed is not good for the destination because it brings foreign cultures and behaviours.
· Assess the risks and development needs with a tourist destination
In Zimbabwe there is a risk in public transportation. Rail transport is poorly maintained. Taxis are available in major cities only and usually they do not carry visitors whose destinations are out of the city. In rural areas they are facing food shortages. In many areas they are experiencing power cuts. Also when viewing wildlife, tourists should maintain a safe distance and they should always have a tour guide to guide them.
The development needs with destination Zimbabwe includes the role of government. Sometimes government support the industry by offering duty relief to tourism suppliers and tour operators. The government should also support the tourism facilities that include accommodation, entertainment, transportation and shopping facilities. Also it should improve in accessibility through the development of new technology and the construction of highways and railways.
· Make viable recommendations for the development of a destination which meet the organisational objectives
According to Rangarirai Muzapu and Mavis Sibanda (2016), Zimbabwe needs a policy framework that addresses its economic challenges and image so as to reverse the declining tourism activities and the government should take a leading role in marketing and promotion of tourism brand through competitive multiple means. Tourism products like ecology and cultural tours should be modified. Maintenance of rail system should improve and also the construction of highways. Current technology facilities should be developed.
3. Analysis of tourism destination development
· Determine the factors to be considered when developing a destination
The important factor to be considered when developing a destination is the environment which includes its appearance, cleanliness and designs of structures and buildings. The stakeholders’ views have the ability to develop a destination. Cultures of the local people is also an important factor in destination development. The natural environment of a destination also helps in developing a destination. History of a place helps in developing a destination and it makes a destination popular (Sheard and Hudson, 2015).
· Assess the impact of technology on destination development
Transportation is part of the technology whereby it facilitates in the movement of visitors from one place to another. It also helps in the movements of goods from one place to another. In Zimbabwe there are three modes of transport which are air, railway and road transport.
Technology increased in the internet and helps in marketing. It also provides tourists with quick and accurate information such as making reservations, dining and activities options (Anon, 2017). The telephones also allow tourists to have contact with their service providers. Communication technology makes it easy for the airline and travellers to communicate for example to communicate their benefits and selling them to their customers and also to enable payment collections and reservations.
· Assess the impact of ethnic tourism, culture, ecotourism and sustainability
The impact ethnic and culture tourism determines the relationship between tourism and culture in Zimbabwe. Culture and ethnic tourism contributed to the destination competitiveness and attractiveness. According to Isdore Guvamombe (2011), experiencing different ways of life, discovering new food and customs and visiting cultural sites have become leading motivations for travel and as a result, a crucial source of revenue and job creation. Places like Great Zimbabwe, Victoria Falls has been promoted with the help of the link between tourism and culture. Revenue is generated through cultural activities like dances from the Shona and Ndebele people and attractions like the National Ruins.
According to Kerry Butters (2011), Zimbabwe is one of a few African countries which have helped to drive ecotourism to become the fastest growing sector on the continent. The local people are allowed by The Community Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) to take control of the wildlife in their area. Tourists who come and take part in watching the wildlife brings in revenue and the natural environment is preserved. Ecotourism helps the community with the development on infrastructure, revenue is generated and community projects can be successful. One of the areas in Zimbabwe practising ecotourism is the Vhimba area in Chimanimani district.
According to the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (2017), sustainable tourism is the tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities. In Zimbabwe there are many national heritages, landscapes, historical sites, cultural places which are well maintained and peace and stability also helps to promote sustainable tourism in the destination. All this minimises negative economic, social and environmental impacts.
· Assess the reliability, suitability and frequency of transport for different geographical regions
Transport provides links between tourism generating places and destination places. In Zimbabwe there are three modes of transport which are air, road and railway transport. Sea transport is not reliable in Zimbabwe because it is a landlocked country. In destination Zimbabwe there are 13 airports including three international airports. Zimbabwe is also supported by other Southern African Development Committee (SADC) airport systems like the OR Tambo airport in South Africa.
In destination Zimbabwe there are roads which connect to attraction places and to generating areas for example tourists from South Africa. There are primary roads which links to and from neighbouring countries which are South Africa, Zambia, Botswana and Mozambique. The roads are called R1, R2, R3. There are also secondary roads which links the major city centres within the country. These road networks are suitable and reliable in the destination.
Rail transport in Zimbabwe is very cheap. There are high speed and luxurious trains which has first class, second class and the economy class. The railways links to and from different destinations around Zimbabwe like Harare, Mutare, Bulawayo. Rail stations are available around Zimbabwe and they provide well organised schedules which are very important in promoting transportation facilities for tourists.
Destination Zimbabwe’s products include the 5A’s which are accommodation, attraction, accessibility, amenities, activities and also ancillary services. Its strength is in the iconic attraction which is the Victoria Falls. Zimbabwe is rich in wildlife hence the growth of ecotourism. Ecotourism is supported by the Community Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resource (CAMPFIRE) and jobs are created for the locals. There are various cultures in Zimbabwe and this promotes culture and ethnic tourism in Zimbabwe. Destination Zimbabwe does not provide sea transport because it is a land locked country.
In Zimbabwe they should consider the maintenance of trains and railways in order to promote the rail transportation and heavy tourism goods will be carried easily. Also health tourism should be addressed.
Appendix Source: Zimbabwe Tourism Authority 2016
source: R W Butler
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