For modern world, electricity becomes an essential part of our civilization for commercial, agricultural, domestic and industrial needs. In the modern era, the great deal of progress and expansion of power transmission system is going on, not only because of increase in demand and generation but also because of great interconnection between various power utilities. The biggest reason for this is to save generation reserves, and to decrease the price of electricity and to make power supply more reliable. Factors such as rapid population and industrial growth influence the increasing demand for electricity. This increased demand can be met by minimizing the losses in distribution and transmission system, by effective reactive power control and by the use of other resources.
The electrical energy is mostly generated and distributed in alternating current (ac) form. We can present an electrical load by using these three elements (Resistor, Capacitor, and Inductor). Each element has a different effect on the phase shift between voltage and current. The Resistive load does not create any shift between current and voltage. The power consumed by the resistive load is known as real power or active power in which electrical energy take a new form of energy Eg. Heat, Mechanical, illumination etc. Whereas inductor and capacitor store energy in magnetic and electrical field respectively which means energy is still stored in original form. Reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors do not dissipate power yet they drop voltage and draw current giving the impression that they are actually dissipating power. This “Phantom Power” is known as reactive power. Since most of the industries and household loads are inductive in nature generating reactive power which will lead to lagging power factor. On the other hand there capacitive loads lead to leading power factor. So capacitive and inductive power factor have opposite effect on power factor.
For the compensation of excessive inductive reactive power during peak load is done by the addition of capacitive Reactive Power. Whereas capacitive Reactive power occurs during light load and can be absorbed by using parallel inductive reactors. Reactive power control is important to maintain the voltage applied to the system, transmission efficiency, power factor, to decrease the size of conductor required, to increase the handling capacity of the system and to increase the KVA rating of the system equipment.
1.0.2 Problem Statements
Nowadays reactive power compensation is becoming the essential part of modern Power and distribution system. As the usage of power electronic devices at home are increasing so does the need for reactive power compensation and improvement of power factor for low voltage supply to commercial and residential consumers. Since the poor power factor results in higher losses for the electricity supplying company, there is need to incorporate power compensation technique in supply system of a residential load. In this project development of compensation scheme which is suitable for household electrical loads such as blender, Refrigerator and washing machine is considered.
1.1 Project Scope
The main objective of this project is to monitor the home energy using iot device and to design and simulate Shunt static VAR compensator (SVC) arrangement to improve the power factor and compensate the additional reactive power used by the residential and commercial loads.
Since the magnitude of voltage and current is low for residential and commercial loads, efforts have been made to use a scheme with MosSc instead of TCS. Attempts have been made to make it as simple, smart and economical as possible
1.2 Report Outline
This report consists of 5 chapters. Each chapter will be represented in manner listed below: –
Chapter 1 Introduction: It consist of a brief introduction, problem statement and overall project statement is discussed.
Chapter 2 Literature Review: will analyse and dissect the existing techniques and methods from research papers relative to the project.
Chapter 3 Detail of the design: It consists of basic principle operation of reactive power control used in this project, detail about the design of the system, the algorithm used to fulfil this project and the Breakdown of the system.
Chapter 4 Data Presentation and Discussion of findings: It consists of analysis and discussion of the overall results and performance of the system.
Chapter 5 Data Presentation and Discussion of findings. This chapter concludes the report with recommendations on further development of the system.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter focuses on on reviewing related regarding Smart meter and static VAR compensator. Also comparison between different method are carried out and the areas of improvement had been identified.
2.1.1 Introduction Section
Reactive power compensation of dynamic loads is one of the most important topic in electrical power system. The main objective of this project is to develop a smart IOT metering and compensating device SVC to wirelessly monitor the data such as Voltage, current and power factor in real time, to improve power factor, system dynamic performance deficiencies and to solve voltage regulation problem. SVC usually consist of inductive and capacitive branch connected in parallel and control by Thyristor or MOSFet switches. Most of Single phase SVCs consist of fix capacitor (FC)- thyristor control reactor TCR layout or single thyristor switching capacitor TSC branch – TCR layout. Problem with these type of layouts is that they can’t effectively compensate reactive power for dynamic loads. So in order to reduce these issues multiple MOS-SC branches technique is used in this project with each branch having different capacitance value. This technique is further improved by monitoring the data of load in real time and using that data to calculate the optimum value of capacitance and TCR firing angle to compensate the power factor