1.0 or better called as Singgora roof1.0 or better called as Singgora roof


1.1 Background of

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is a country that have relatively many heritage building that have an
exceptional artistic and diverse structure. Some of it already receive
recognition by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO). Conservation and preservation of building is one of the method used
to protect a heritage building. Generally, conservation is a technical activity
towards historical buildings (Siti Norlizaiha Harun, 2011). Meanwhile,
preservation is an activity that keep the structure of building remain intact.  Architecture of house is important as it
symbolize cultural symbol and have certain heritage value in the life of
society. It potrays uniqueness of traditional Malay house which have exquisite
value as time passes. In terms of Malay house roof, it also symbolize racial
origins of certain region and state of Malay’s. As for ‘Minangkabau’ house from
Negeri Sembilan roof have structure like a bulls horn.

roof which believed origin from Southern Thailand and east coast of Malaysia by
reown architecture of Malay heritage. Clay roof tiles or better called as
Singgora roof was used widely in traditional Malay house.  ‘Singhora bricks’ (called by Kelantanese) or
roof  originates from Thailand and it tiles
made manually. Due to migration process, trading and demand by the
Thai communities around early 18th it became part of the Malay
traditional architecture. It application included building roof
covers, for mosques, private home resting (gazebos) as well as palaces.

usage of Singgora roof declined since 1977 (Zulkarnain Hassan, 2016). Product demand
start to reduce due to quality, process making as well as cost for firing.
Difficulty to obtain clay material make it more complicated. Then the
competition over newly found material such as concrete, zinc and composite
inhibit Singgora production. Luckily, due to its aesthetic value of the
Singgora roof make it still in demand primarily for traditional Malay house. Some
of the example are Aryani Resort (owned by Raja Bahrin) and lots of bungalow
house (Kemenshah Indah, Kuala Lumpur). Because of the clay use in Singgora
roof, it acquire implications in terms of conservation such as materials and
finishing. This make some people hate the idea of using Singgora roof. This is
due to the national heritage conversation and awareness of limited resources to
support effort in case to enlarge new alternative sources search of Singgora

principle is ‘authenticity in conversation’, which have four originality in
building, placement, architecture and building materials (Siti Norlizaiha
Haron, 2010). In year 2008 to 2009 some of heritage building undergo
conservation projects such as Kelantan Masjid Mulong, Kelantan and Islamic
Religious Council that permanent used Singgora roof. Damage Singgora being
replaced new Singgora or used salvage materials as an alternative.

environmental effects on material can be the problems faced for conservation of
Singgora roof. Effects such as moisture, pollution, rain, heat and
micro-organisms production known as fungus can be the threat to the appearance
of the roof. This effects may lead to Singgora roof function poorly. Therefore,
proper materials and finishes play critical role in conservation of Singgora

this research, the main idea is to preserve Singgora roof which was used widely
before in Malaysia but being slowly replaced by other development of various
material as time goes by as well as ensuring improvement in appearance of
material. The enhancement to Singgora roof tile is important to ensure that it
last longer and durable.


1.2 Objectives

To preserve traditional values and
heritage building in Malaysia. 

To asses mixture appearance quality that
will cohere to originality principle of originality preservation and
sustainable material.


1.3 Problem Statements


are few problems arise in order to helps in conservation of Malay Singgora
roof. The usage of Singgora roof slowly faded due to the quality, material
strength, life expectancy and fungal problems. Singgora roof tiles from
distance may look exact to fish scales arrangement. The light and porous
characteristic possed by Singgora roof make it a good water absorbent material.
This result to naturally cool environment caused by house that use Singgora
roof. However, the thin and lightweight material of the roof make it easier to
break if not handle properly. In addition, the hardly obtain raw material
(clay) make it even harder to produce large amount of Singgora roof to fulfil
demand. Then, the porous characteristics may lead to faster fungal production
because of it moist structure after certain period.  

that, high cost and time required for the conservation of heritage building’s
roof. Many process involved in order to conserve the roof such as open, treat
and the re-install of the replacement. This process require a diligent
commitment in order to ensure the Singgora roof does not face any damage during
the replacement process.



1.4 Research


this research, the idea to deliver an upgrade version or concept of Singgora
roof tiles can be seen clearly through the innovation created with aid of
colour oxide during glazing process. Through the colour oxide addition, the
problem faced in roof especially Singgora roof tiles can be avoid. The research
objective obtain successfully. Besides that, the long and complicated process
to conserve the Singgora roof tile was made easier due glazing process. This
process somehow increase the durability of the roof tiles which also make it
last longer. By the involvement of more entrepreneur in this traditional roof
tiles it can increase production of more quality Singgora roof. After that, it
is expectant to make Malaysian start to realise the identity and unique
characteristic hold by Singgora roof tiles in building architecture. Next, from
this research Malaysia can be promote as one of the heritage building
destination for those who need to learn and see the unique value embedded in
Malay Traditional Roof. Therefore, Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia
(MOTAC) should take this advantages by encourage more entrepreneur to explore
in the production of Malay Singgora roof tiles. 
By the entrance of tourist into our country somehow will increase the
exchange rate currency value of Malaysia Ringgit.  Lastly, it is hoped that this research can
help National Heritage Department to help and preserve the findings on Singgora
roof and applied it to protect the resource of Malaysia Heritage roof for other




3.1 Material

1. Raw materials (clays)

2. Grog

3. Colour oxide (copper
oxide, cobalt oxide and others)


3.2 Methodology

methods and procedure have been decided to carry out this research. First, the
raw materials (clay) was obtained from Bachok, Kelantan. Then the sample
experiment retrieved being conduct at Strength Lab to obtain data of original
local clay. Addition of potential materials into the clay done during the
replacement in roofing sheets. It is found that additional materials (grog) added to increase strength of
clay. Pre-fired clay obtain from Singgora sheet rejection after firing process
is known as grog. The material next
being smashed into small particle and undergo 100 meshes sieve. Material mix of
clay and grog then ready for kneading and wedging process.

that, is glazing process. Glaze is layer of glass by firing process to improve
strength, durability, water resist and create colour to clay surface. It was
applied to inhibit production of fungus on Singgora roof tiles.  The best glaze treatment for Singgora roof
tiles is matt finish due to its similarity with original Singgora finished.
Besides that, oxide being added in glaze. Addition of colour on Singgora roof
tiles can increase beauty view of the building. Few percentage of dye such as
cobalt oxide and copper oxide is mix with composition of clay. Colours produced
like green, red, yellow and black applied to clay and being burned in roofing
sheets. To get an overview of the installed roof shape, some roof arrangement
in compliance with creativity design being done.