1) POP3 – Post Office Protocol 3: POP3 is the newest standard protocol for receiving e-mails. POP3 is a client/server protocol and when you receive an email it is stored on the Internet server. This protocol is designed to delete the email once it is downloaded but some emails can be saved for some time by administrators. POP3 is considered to be very fast and robust although there are some limitations. Some limitations that exist include: the same email being downloaded on different devices or when you delete an email from a client, the other clients still have the email downloaded.
2) HTTPS – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure: HTTPS is a protocol on which data is being sent between the browser and the website but in a more secure manner over HTTP. The “security” means that all communication is encrypted. This is most commonly seen on a website that requires confidentiality such as banking websites or online shopping where money/identity is involved. HTTPS has two protocols to encrypt communications: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS). Both protocols use a public and private key to encrypt and decode the communication. The major benefits of HTTPS are secured communication so that valuable information, such as social security, credit card numbers, and identity, is preserved.
3) DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: DHCP is a protocol that quickly gives out IP addresses to devices in the network. DHCP also configures subnet masks, default gateway, and DNS server information. When a client requests an IP address the DHCP, which can be a computer or router, gives out an available IP. The benefit of DHCP is that there is a slim chance of two devices have the same IP address. This makes the network easy to manage from the administrative standpoint. A disadvantage of DHCP is that it should not be used for devices that need static IP addresses such as printers or file server.
4) SLIP – Serial Line Internet Protocol: SLIP is a TCP/IP protocol that establishes a connection between two devices that were previously communicating. SLIP is not used today thanks to PPP (Point to Point Protocol). In essence, SLIP sends a frame of data along with an END character which establishes a connection. There is no error detection or authentication so the communicating parties do not know who they are communicating with. It was developed in 1984 by Rick Adams.
5) ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol: ICMP is a protocol that sends error messages when network problems cause packets of data not to be delivered. ICMP sends the error messages to the source IP address that the host cannot be reached for delivery. A benefit of ICMP is that any IP device can send/receive the error messages. This protocol is used mainly by administrators to troubleshoot and solve problems in the network. The ICMP messages are sent through datagrams which help in deciphering which packet is failing.