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1. Some of the benefits a student will gain by studying philosophy is the ability to let them think and evaluate ideas all while being able to perform critical thinking skills. The student will not only gain knowledge on the different thing but as well as understand the meaning behind them. According to the book, Aristotle?? states that “true knowledge was the deeper understanding of process” and I can only agree to this statement. For example, students entering the medical field will know the different steps and procedures that need to be done but a student who will actually understand the meaning behind that procedure and understanding what they are doing will be helping the patient in the long run, is a different type of appreciation.2. The Socratic Method of Teaching may be useful for students to learn as it lets them think out of the box as well as finding the answer to questions that may come after the original question. This type of method works best in the court room when investigators questions the suspects with different questions to add up the answers in order to get you to speak the truth. It is one of the oldest and most powerful ways of teaching students to create a variety of thoughts and ideas in order to get the correct answer.3. Critical thinking can be used to analyze a philosophical issue because it is the best way to evaluate problems. Critical thinking requires a rational reflection which lets a good critical thinker be able to look for similarities and differences in order to solve any problem. These type of discussions include a number of premises and a conclusion. The premises providing a variety of reasons in order to support the conclusion that has been made.4. Induction, abduction and deduction are all the different types of reasoning. An Induction argument first gathers all the facts and information in order to form a conclusion. A deduction argument is when the person takes a statement and then tries to create a logical conclusion for it. An abduction argument is the most different from all because it forms an argument based on evidence already presented to them in order to then come to a conclusion.5. Some of the different areas of philosphy that will be disccused in this course include the five branches of philosphy. Metaphysics, the study of existence. Asking ourselves what is really out there in the world? Epistemology, the study of knowledge. Asking ourselves what how do we really know about it? Ethics, the study of action. Asking ourselves what should we really do? Politics, the study of force. Asking ourselves what actions are really permissble? and Esthetics, the study of art. Asking ourselves what can life really be like?6. Idealism in the words of Plato, would say that everything is a copy in a projection of this world. That everything that exists we can perceive it not for its original form but for its version that took life. Materialism is the complete opposite because it is believed that everything is real. Whether is may be people, animals, objects or things, everything that exists or has matter is real. Dualism argued that as we are created with physical matter we also have thinking minds to make any type of decision.7. The term universal means ideas or concepts while particular are more like concrete matters that cannot be copied more like individual things we encounter in the world. One of the views is an extreme or platonic realism. Plato argues that the universals we see are just a copy of an alternate world. A form he would describe as the essence of an object that exist in a different reality. Then there is an extreme nominalism that states the exact opposite. It is believed that the universals are the ones who do not exist but that only the particulars are existent. Then there is an exaggerated realism that states that universals and particulars both exist and have many similarities. Ideas exist in actual physical objects and not in a separate reality. The last view is conceptualism, which is how we interpret particulars in our minds as universals. The ideas are real but it as well depends on your own thoughts and ideas. 8. Anaximander wanted to discover the true meaning of reality and its primary substance and he came to the conclusion that it was air. Air is needed for all type of survival but Anaximander concluded that it was necessary for objects to be composed of air. He actually tested these experiments to view their different densities of air. He concluded that air as the primary substance was infinite, which is why life has concluded. If there was no air, the earth would be dead along with every organism in it.9. Pythagoras believed the truth about Anaximander’s belief was false. He believed that the primary substance of living didnt have to do with air but something numerically based. He believes to be able to understand the true meaning behind the nature you must understand how numbers work. His logic was to be able to find something concrete enough that he could rely on definite conclusion. 10. Aristotle believed that if we asked enough of the right questions, we would get closer to getting a better sense of reality which is why he developed four questions and called them the four causes which are what he believes to be the change of the world. The first cause being the material cause, refering to the matter of a material that is something is made from. It is made up of the things we can see, touch or taste. The formal cause referring to what gives the matter its form or structure. What makes something the way it is rather than something else. The Efficient cause referring to the actual reason on why it exists. It’s not about what it is made of but more of an actual force that brings something into being. And the final cause, referring to why something is the way it is.11. Rationalism and Empiricism are both ways to study the theories of knowledge. What makes them different is the way they form a conclusion.  Rationalism is a method of gaining understanding through inferences and logic. While Empiricism observes the situation before hand, and then forms a conclusion after it has seen and comprehended the facts. 12. A priori knowledge is a knowledge we know prior to experience. Things we don’t need to observe before hand to understand and have such knowledge, they are just things we already know. A posteriori knowledge is a knowledge that we can only have after certain experiences. Things we mus observe first in order to get such knowledge.13. Foundationalism is our own knowledge based on true beliefs. Meaning that there exists something that can not be justified any further, making it the foundation of all other beliefs. Coherentism states that our beliefs form another network of beliefs that support each other mutually, unlike foundationalism that is one direction with beliefs. In this case, there does not have to be any primary beliefs just a coherence among the set of beliefs. Making it open to contradicting beliefs to exist. 14. The pragmatic theories of truth claim that the truth is relative to any sense of the individual. The correspondance theory of truth states that a belief is true if and only if, it corresponds with something that exists in the world.15. They concern the limits of provability in formal axiomatic theories. The first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system Bwithin which a certain amount of arithmetic can be carried out, there are statements of the language of B, which can neither be proved nor disproved in B. According to the second incompleteness theorem, such a formal system cannot prove that the system itself is consistent

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