1. the concept of ‘pruning’ and what1. the concept of ‘pruning’ and what


1.       Discuss
the role of nature and nurture in children’s development. What is the extent of
influence of each factor on the child?


When talking
about child development, nature and nurture are contentious issue. For all we
know that nature appertain to the biological and hereditary attribution that
may influence development of a child. In other hand, nurture focuses more on
the environmental characteristics that also influence development. Experiences
in environment affects children’s development through different phase, it can
be physical, or mostly social like peer pressure. Lastly, children’s own
behaviors influence their growth whether through nature or by nurture and now a
days, millennial youngsters and even millennial children can make many choices,
improve their ideas, and seek out more information, some psychologist before
argued that it is nature, others are in nurture but for me both nature and
nurture work hand in hand. They are partners!

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2.       What
is the concept of ‘pruning’ and what does that mean for our brain functioning?


According to
Merriam dictionary, pruning means to cut off / cut back or eliminating
superfluous matter. Dealing about the concept of pruning in our brain function,
for me is that there are some neurons that are “damage”. Yes, some maybe damage
but it doesn’t mean that they’re defective, most simply fail to connect to
their chemically defined target. Though we are only at the threshold to unravel
the ramification of pruning in the human brain, this process may have a clear
and significant consequences for normal human brain function and may provide
discernment into the causes of some desolation neuropsychiatric diseases.


3.       To
what does Vygotsky attribute mainly the child development? Explain briefly.

Dealing about
cognitive development, there are many well-known psychologists associated with
it and one of that is Lev Vygotsky, he was known for his theory that cognitive
posits that information from the external world is transpose and internalized
through language. Language is both a symbolic system of communication and a
cultural tool used to transmit culture and history. I can still remember when I
was in my elementary days I also try mimicking and according to Vygotsky;
mimicking adult is often the most obvious way this process can be observed.

4.       If
long term-memory function is problematic, would this cause adverse effect to
the executive functions?

Yes, it can
cause adverse effect to the executive function because first, executive
functioning is the board description of the set of process pertaining in
certain areas of our cognitive and behavioral control and if the long – term
memory functioning is problematic it will be a hard time regaining the memory
being processed a week ago or a month ago.

5.       How
can we discourage a child’s behavior based on Skinner’s concept of extinction?

In psychology,
extinction refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that
results the behavior to decrease or disappear. For example a mother teaches her
son to study every night and gives him a box of chocolate, overtime the mother
decreases the amount of chocolates she gives her child until the day she
stopped giving him any reward. With the reward now was gone, the child refuses
to study every night until the conditioned stimulus which is studying every
night becomes extinct.