115 Kaiser Family Foundation points out Bilharzia115 Kaiser Family Foundation points out Bilharzia

115 million plus individuals stay in South American
currently making about one third of the United States population. This
includes; Texas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia Compared
to other regions, Southerners are more likely to be uninsured, less likely to
have access to needed health services, and more likely to experience a number of
health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

Compared to other regions, Southerners
seem to be more uninsured, don’t have access to needed health services, and
more likely to experience a number of health conditions such as diabetes
and heart disease. 115 million plus individuals stay in
South American currently making about one
third of the United States population. This includes;
Texas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia.
Demographically, Mississippi is already at a disadvantage. A black man in
Mississippi has a shorter life expectancy than the average
American did in 1960. The state has an obesity rate of 35 percent, one of the
highest poverty rates in the country, and just one abortion
clinic. Healthcare in Mississippi and in other Southern states is unlikely to
become more equitable anytime soon, however. As the study authors note,
16 of the states in the bottom half of the ranking have opted
not to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act to adults making up to 138
percent of the federal poverty level. In Mississippi, for example,
“Medicaid eligibility for non-disabled adults is limited to parents with
incomes below 29 percent of poverty, or about $6,800 a year for a
family of four, and adults without dependent children remain ineligible
regardless of their income,” as the Kaiser Family Foundation points
out         Bilharzia Cercarial dermatitisor swimmer’s itch
results when cercariae of schistosomes penetrate
human skin and initiate inflammatory responses. The parasites typically die in
the skin but in some cases may persist and infect other organs. Cercarial
dermatitis is caused by a complex and poorly known assemblage of schistosome
species, and can occur in any location where people come in contact with water
bodies harbouring schistosome-infected snails. In North America, most cases are
reported from the upper Midwest. In south-western USA, this
phenomenon has not been well studied, and it is not known which schistosome
species are present, or if cercarial dermatitis occurs with any regularity. As
part of our ongoing studies of schistosome diversity, using morphological
traits and sequence data to differentiate species, we have thus far identified
eight schistosome genetic lineages from snails from New Mexico and Colorado. We
have investigated two cercarial dermatitis outbreaks, one occurring in
Stubblefield Lake in northern New Mexico, and one in Prospect Lake in the heart
of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The New Mexico outbreak involved either one or
two different avian schistosome species, both transmitted by physid snails. The
Colorado outbreak was due to Trichobilharzia brantae, a species
transmitted by geese and the snail Gyraulus parvus. These outbreaks are in
contrast to those in northern states where schistosomes infecting snails of the
family Lymnaeidae are more often responsible for outbreaks. Our survey suggests
that dermatitis-causing schistosomes are not rare in the southwest, and that
there are plenty of opportunities for dermatitis outbreaks to occur in this
region. Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated
freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living.
Freshwater becomescontaminated by Schistosoma eggs when infected
people urinate or defecate in the water. The eggs hatch, and if certain
types of freshwater snails are present in the water, the parasites develop and
multiply inside the snails. The parasite leaves the snail and enters the water
where it can survive for about 48 hours. Schistosoma parasites
can penetrate the skin of persons who are wading, swimming,
bathing, or washing in contaminated water. Within several weeks, parasite
mature into adult worms, residing in the blood vessels of the body where the
females produce eggs. Some of the eggs travel to the bladder or intestine and
are passed into the urine or stool.          
REFERENCES Farley, J. (2013). Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical
Medicine: https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/bilharzia-john-farley/1111421169
  Ken, W. (2010). Health Care Management and the Law. Retrieved from
  Baciu, A., Yamrot, N., Amy G., James, N.,
Weinstein. (2017) Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity

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