2.1 Definition of Gender Equality
Gender equality definition according Comhionannas Inscne In
Éirinn Gender Equality is the condition when both gender enjoy the same rights
and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic
participation and decision-making, and when the different behaviors,
aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favored.
History of Gender Equality
There are many people who fight for
gender equality, one of them is Clara Zetkin, the defender of women
emancipation. Clara Zetkin, a German citizen born in Wiederau on July 5, 1857.
Zetkin believed women should be organized separately in German social
democratic parties, as discrimination against women is still ongoing. Zetkin
undertook various reforms to the law for women and families. Zetkin
persistently campaigned on women’s issues, including equal opportunities and
voting rights in elections. Zetkin also voiced her aspirations to Die
Gleichheit, the women’s special party newspaper where she worked. She went to
farms and factories and gave a speech on women’s rights. Zetkin argued that
woman should take action with men as workers, then they will remain in an
unbalanced state, if their reproductive function is not given special
The idea of Zetkin is remembered
worldwide at the second socialist women’s conference in Copenhagen where it was
preserved as an international women’s day to commemorate and take the spirit of
the garment labor movement in New York in 1857 and 1908. March 8th
is something important not only to feminists, but also for parts of the world
who want justice and peace. Zetkin’s spirit can be used as a mirror for women
to continue fighting.
Di Indonesia, terdapat R. A. Kartini
Kinds of Gender Inequality
Many forms of gender inequality are
consciously or unconsciously implemented in daily life. Some of these are
marginalization, subordination, negative labeling, hardness, and multiple load.
Marginalization is the process of
separating a group (gender) from a particular group. In this case, women are
often not given the rights unlike men because of the assumption that women have
neither strength nor ability. For example, in an organization, usually the
elected leader must be male and his secretary is female. Women are not given
the opportunity to disguise the position of the leader.
Subordination is the assumption that
the existence of a gender is more important than the other gender. In this
case, the assumption is that men are more important than women. It is common
for the time being that men should learn as high as possible and become the backbone
of the family. Women should not learn as high as possible because it will end
up being subordinate husband. Women must depend on the whereabouts of men.
Negative labeling given to women,
generally, they are too emotional and women can’t make decisions. Women are
judged to be dependent on their husbands. This seems to have been tied to the
thinking of almost everyone, thus giving the impression not to delegate a
responsibility to women. It also makes women unable to enjoy the education or
work they want.
Not a few women have experienced
acts of violence of a spouse or family members. This often happens because
women are considered weak and submissive, while the most powerful is male. It
is often misinterpreted therefore that sometimes men vent their negatives to
women in the form of violence. Not a few cases of physical violence in the
household, sexual harassment, rape, genital mutilation, and prostitution are
The double burden here means that a
gender must do some work at once in excess. Most women who already have jobs
should work also for households. Women have to do domestic work alone while men
also have to do the housework because she is also involved in domestic affairs.