2) cannot be known by others. When2) cannot be known by others. When

the major ethical principles that guide researchers in the works.

is usually done using human beings with feelings and experiences. Method of
data in some studies also touched confidential, emotional, rights, personal things,
and the truth of the subjects. Respondents have secret or confidential
information, which cannot be known by others. When disclosed or announced will
have a negative impact on certain parties, researchers need to know the ethics
of research before planning and conducting research.

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is derived from the Greek word meaning “ethos” which means the common
sense that is commonly matched by systematic studies of the concept of ‘good’,
‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’. Ethical issues are the dilemmas and conflicts that
may arise on a ‘suitable’ method for conducting research. Ethics determine what
can be done by a researcher and things cannot be done by the researchers.

on ethics in research, a researcher must:

a)    Research
Participant Protection

b)    Confidentiality
of Research Participant Information

c)    Power
Options for Engagement in Research / Issue Coercion

d)    Initial
Explanation About Research / Informed Consent

e)    Avoiding
Deceptive Practices


a)   Research
Participant Protection

research, participating participants should be protected against any negative
effects that may be either physically or mentally. Allow sufficient time for
the respondent to answer questions and not ask questions that embarrass, or
cause emotional turmoil unpleasant experiences. Hence, the researcher must
fully inform the subject of any possible occurrence during the research.




b)   Confidentiality
of Research Participant Information

participant’s information should be protected from the general public
information unless the participants have given written consent that allows the
researcher to disclose such information to the public. For example, in survey
surveys, respondents’ names need not be stated. Researchers should never
disclose information about the sample of the study until it can interfere with
the safety or dignity of the respondents. Personal rights must be protected and
cannot be known


c)   Power
Options for Engagement in Research / Issue

Participant has the right to be involved
in or not in research, without compulsion. Although elected, the participant is
entitled to withdraw from involvement in the research at any time, with or
without any reason.


d)   Initial
Explanation About Research / Informed Consent

initial explanation should be given to the participants about the research they
will participate in so they can choose whether to engage or not in the
research. One of the measures to ensure ethics in research is through the use
of an informed consent form. The form must be read and signed by the
participant or guardian/parent (if it involves a child).


e)   Avoiding
deceptive practices

Researchers must clearly
disclose the data and findings, explaining the procedure of the investigation
and publishing status with honesty. Researchers absolutely cannot falsify data
or attempt to deceive colleagues or involved agencies and the general public
about them. It is unethical if a researcher only refers to and reports the
literature that is in agreement with the problem and avoids any other study.
For example, if a researcher enters financial aid for his study it is likely
that it will exaggerate the importance of his research and wilfully does not
refer to a study that does not support his request. (Gay & Diehl, 1992:96;
Forcese & Richer, 1973:5)


Good research
features include scientific and ethical perspectives. Issues become more
pronounced in social research where the subject is a human who has feelings,
intellect and is influenced by social and religious values. Research such as
weapons is neutral but human beings determine whether it is used to advance
society or destroy it.