3Extended EssayTo what extent has the invention of the incubator significantly affected the lifespan of a Newborn?HistoryGabrielle AdenugaWord count:Table of ContentsIntroduction………………………………………………………2The first Neonatal Incubator……………………………………..4Tarniers incubator (and thereafter) ………………………………7Couney vs Tarnier………………………………………………..8Introduction The Incubator is a medical device used to obtain optimal environment for premature babies, such as maintaining C02, oxygen levels, and temperature. A premature baby is a baby born prior to thirty-seven weeks of gestation, and because of its early appearance, premature newborns often have underdeveloped organs and almost no body fat causing them to need extra help in regulating temperature for survival. An incubator is basically a larger plastic box, with many dials and things of that sort used in order to adjust based on the needs of the newborn. The first ever appearance of a neonatal incubator was invented by a pediatric doctor named Martin. A. Couney in Germany around 1880. He was a pioneer in the field of neonatology because he became a stepping stone for neonatal advancements. The reasons for Couney creating the neonatal incubator was because his daughter was born premature and thrived under his care, yet other medical professions such as other doctors were suspicious and skeptical of his work and did not believe in his work. During this time premature infants were seen as “weaklings” whose life depended on God’s fate or destiny for them. Banks would not fund Couney and his invention thinking that hospitals would not want any part of this machine. Couney set out to prove everyone wrong and began an exhibit of premature babies in incubators at the 1896 Berlin Exposition. The main purpose of this exhibit was to show is work and the use of the incubators not to put the tiny babies on display. He ran the exhibit as if it were a miniature hospital. In addition to Couney’s incubator we also saw one in Europe by a French obstetrician named Stephane Tarnier. His initial goal was to figure out a way to keep the infants from dying of hypothermia. Originally his first incubator was derived from the chicken incubator which held multiple chicks at one time; because of this design Tarnier’s incubator housed multiple infants at once. Quickly he rearranged this design and made it to where it only held one infant per incubator. Compared to the modern-day incubator Couney was pretty close with the functions of the modern incubator. They both did the same function of creating a stable environment for the infant. Although both doctors worked with incubators around the same time (1880) they each had different outcomes with the number of infant rehabilitations. In conjunction with Couney and Tarnier we also see a man named Alexandre Lion who may have had a connection with Couney. Lion is also important because he made one of the first technological advancements to the Infant Incubator. Each and every one of these obstetrician/ pediatricians made an effort to save premature lives while showing the world how important incubators are. The incubator aided in the lifespan of premature infants because it helped them to grow and develop. Prior to the incubator, Premature babies did not live long because they were underdeveloped and had nothing to help them survive. Also, not many doctors did much to preserve the life of a premature newborn because of the beliefs they have about themThe first Neonatal IncubatorCouneys’ incubator was rather successful, with a rehabilitation rate of ninety percent of all preemies placed in his care. His development of an incubator at the time consisted of a five-foot-tall box-like container made of glass and steel standing on legs. He used a water boiler connected to a pipe that ran underneath the bed working in conjunction with a thermostat to regulate temperature. Along with the boiling water pipe, he included a pipe that brought outside air into the incubator but first, it had to get through a series of wool padding that was antiseptic or wet with medicated water, then lastly going through a dry wool to catch any impurities left. This intricate process was used to purify the air that entered the incubator. Lastly, he used a revolving fan to blow out exhausted air out of the incubator. All the components worked together to make the environment inside the incubator as sterile and stable for the infant as possible. Many people said that Couney was wrong for putting the premature infant on display for entertainment but that was not his intention. Because so many people were a skeptic of his work he decided to prove that he knew what he was doing and began the exhibitions. The first exhibition of infants in incubators was at the 1896 Berlin Exposition. These attractions caught the eyes of many people which lead to thousands of curious beings at the incubator showings. Couney used the curiosity of the people to fund his exhibition. Each person paid to enter the attraction and because so many people showed up regularly the commission paid for all the equipment and nurses it took to take care for the infants since the banks did not want to finance his production of incubators. Couney considered the side attraction to be a miniature hospital.In order to begin to show everyone that his methods worked Couney needed test subjects. A German hospital donated premature infants that they thought would surely die to Couney. With the use of his incubator, Couney was able to rehabilitate each infant life, helping them to grow and recuperate. Because of Couney’s success with the infants, many doctors from around the united states began to recommend patients to go and see Couney and his incubators. Couney had a success rate of eighty-five percent roughly about six thousand and five hundred infants during his forty-year run of the “miniature hospital”. Some of Couney’s rehabilitation tactics was for the infants to be taken out of the incubators and “shown love” with hugs and kisses. Unclear on whether the knowledge of the interaction between child and mother was known at the time Couney still used these interactions in conjunction with the use of the incubator. This is an early on action used to promote growth and strength from the infant. We can especially see this in modern-day hospitals when a baby is struggling to hold on often they are swaddled by their mother. Some could say that this was dangerous because it was exposing the infant to germs in the air (and infection). Because Couney ran this as a miniature hospital he made it a point of contact to scrub and sterilize the environment. Regardless of what people say Couney seemed confident in his work especially since there was not any other place with incubators and he had a decently high success of rehabilitation rate. Couney’s babies have even contested for him saying that he was an incredible man for caring for them when no one else would. Couney finally decided to come to an end with his exhibits (his exhibit lasted forty years) after hospitals started to take the initiative in investing in incubators. He later died a couple of years after he shut down his exhibitions, but he will always be remembered especially for all the preemie’s lives he saved.Figure 1: Dr. Martin A Couney Holding two premature infantsTarnier’s incubator (and thereafter) Originally the incubator that Tarnier developed was taken directly from the one seen for baby chicks; this made for multiple infants in one incubator. This design would not suffice so Tarnier adjusted the design making it compatible with only one infant per incubator. The most prominent death condition Tarnier saw from premature infants was hypothermia, so his main focus was to prevent that from happening. His model used heating bottles to warm up the incubator, but it had to replace every three hours. Tarnier compared the immortality rates before and after the use of the and found that infant death rate decreased from sixty-six percent to thirty-eight percent. During this time the French were obsessing over their country’s falling birth rate which was half of that of their rivals Germany. Then Tarnier decided that they should expand the number of babies they attend to. At this point in time, they treated the premature infants that were born in the hospital. From this expansion, Tanier created a premature infant nursery called services des de´bile. , could possibly be interpreted as the first Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The infant nursery was a room full of incubators beside the maternity hospital. Now that Tarnier started treating infants born outside the hospital had a setback and the Infant mortality rate increased to more than seventy-five percent, not including the infants that died right after being brought. The increase in these death rates showed how important it was for a premature infant to be born in a hospital because babies born outside the hospital had so many other conditions affecting its life. After Tarnier retired the care of the premature infants were placed in the hands of a new generation of obstetricians. Specifically, Pierre Constant Budin; He took Tarnier’s position after he retired. He sought to bring the mother and the infants together and he gave constant support even after the mother and child had, from the hospital. Budin focused a lot on breasts milk from the mother instead of the incubator (growth and strength wise) but he decided to put the incubator next to the mother hospital bed so she can watch her child’s every move and gain a connection that way since its not always good to remove the infant out of the incubator.Couney vs TarnierHow are Couney and Tarnier different? Couney and Tarnier are very much similar in the sense that they displayed the infants in order to supply financial support for the technological needs and for the infants. The only difference between them really is the incubator itself and the mortality rates. Couney was significantly more successful than Tarnier was for reasons unknown. They both nurtured infants from all over so for the drastically different outcomes is unknown although it is not specifically stated whether or not the infants nurtured by Couney where born inside or outside of a hospital. Now just to reap Couney incubator consisted of A boiling water pipe, he included a pipe that brought outside air into the incubator but first, it had to get through a series of wool padding that was antiseptic or wet with medicated water, then lastly going through a dry wool to catch any impurities left. This intricate process was used to purify the air that entered the incubator. Whereas in Tarniers incubator his air system was air entered the base of the incubator and circulated around the infant. Since it is unclear if whether Tarnier filtered the air or if he did how exactly this action was done, the only difference between him and Couney is the air system. This could be a contributing factor to the many more deaths seen by Tarnier especially when including babies born outside of the hospital. Keep in mind that both events of using the incubator happened around the same time (around the 1880’s) but different parts of the world. It is unclear on whether one doctor may have piggybacked off the other, but it seemed that Couney’s incubator was more advanced than Tarniers for the time period. Another reason that Couney may have been more successful than Tarnier could be because he had more funding from the number of people that showed up to the exhibitions. Also, Couney explicitly states that he ran the attraction as a miniature hospital so he made it a point of attention to make sure the environment was scrubbed clean; he and his fellow’s doctors always wore a lab coat on top of their clothing and the nurses and wet nurses wore white. Conclusion In conclusion, both Couney and Tarnier aided significantly in the development of premature life. Their contributes to the incubator began the entrance to the world of neonatology. Although there have been many more advancements done to the incubator that come after 1880, Couney and Tarnier laid the foundation for the preservation of premature infant lives. Works Cited Baker, Jeffrey P. The Incubator and the Medical Discovery of the Premature Infant. Vol. 20. New York: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.How a Coney Island sideshow advanced medicine for premature babies. July 21, 2015. Accessed September 20, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/coney-island-sideshow-advanced-medicine-premature-babies/.Baker, Jeffory P. The Machine in the Nursery. Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University, 1996. Accessed November 12, 2017.”Infant Incubator exhibit.” The Atlantic city experience. 2016. Accessed October 12, 2017. http://www.atlanticcityexperience.org/the-prohibition-era/incubator-babies.