Organizational practices include
business strategies and operational business elements. In fact, practices deal with
how companies overcome the threats of competition and also the way opportunities
are exploited. The practices of organizations include.
Whether strategies of the organization are
supportive to the organizational purpose or not.
Resource utilization for achieving best
Whether business operations are competitive
and goal oriented or not.
Whether business opportunities are carefully
exploited or not.
Business operations based on trust and
2.1 EFFECTS OF CULTURE
The effects of culture may
be both functional, as well as dysfunctional. In case of the latter, it may be
stated that culture leads to group think, collective blind spots, resistance to
change and innovation. For instance, culture makes an organization a clan. The clan
formed in an industry possesses a few weaknesses. A clan always tends to
develop xenophobia, a fear of outsiders. In short, employees do not accept new members
problem from well-knit culture relates to the management of diversity. Strong
cultures put considerable pressure on employees to conform but modern
organizations are known for diversity of workforce. Since modern organizations
accept and encourage work force diversity, there develops conflict between the
need for conformity and the advantage of having employees with diverse
behaviors and strengths. On the positive side, the significance of organizational
culture can be understood from the following.
culture creates a strong sense of bonding between the organization and its
employees. An employee’s willingness to perform in an organization depends on
the internal environment and good interpersonal relations, which are determined
by the organizational culture.
identity with the organization is based on the culture. For example, employees
working in reputed organizations express pride in their organizations. Such identification
makes them committed to the success of the enterprise, and willing to sacrifice
their individual interests for the sake of organizational interests.
Employees joining an organization
have various backgrounds, interests, education etc. Although HR departments
take care to select the appropriate candidates, perfect selection is a myth.
Once they join the organization, employees develop a positive work attitude
towards the organization, if the culture of the organization is such that it
has a positive attitude towards its employees. In fact, organizational culture
performs a number of functions, For instance, it develops positive personality, motivates employees,
provides satisfaction, enhances morale, develops good interpersonal relations
among the employees, provides a congenial environment, enthusiasm to work, and
positive thinking which are all qualities of a good citizen. This, sound
organizational culture not only benefits the organization but helps to build a
2.2 DIMENSIONS OF OC
dimensions of organizational culture have been presented hereunder.
This refers to the
individual’s freedom to exercise his or her responsibility. In other words,
individual autonomy is the degree to which employees are free to manage
themselves; to have considerable decision making power and not to be
continually accountable to higher management.
This refers to the
extent of direct supervision, formalization, and centralization in an
organization. In other words, position structure is the degree to which
objectives of the job and methods for accomplishing it are established and
communicated to the individuals by supervisors.