of The Study
to Harmer (2004:31) writing (as one of the four skill of listening, speaking,
reading, and writing) has always formed part of the syllabus in the teaching of
English. Its means that writing is important skill which must be learnt beside
listening, speaking and reading, because it is used to communicate. Students
must be able to communicate not only in oral form but also in written form.
Besides that, writing is very important skill to be taught to the students.
In fact, writing in English is not easy
for some students. They have difficulties when they compose words into correct
sentences. Because of these, there will be errors that can be found in their
written product. Errors in writing
English are the cases which are difficult enough to be avoid. The students
produce errors in writing because they have not understand the target language.
According to Richards (1985: 96) states
that error analysis is the study of errors made by the second and foreign
language learners. Nevertheless, these errors will affect their writing.
Therefore, it is important to analyze the errors because by learning the errors
many advantages that can be learned by students and teacher. Corder (1981:10)
states that at least, there are three significant advantages of error analysis
by both teacher and students in classroom activities. According to M. Syafi’i. S, Jonri Kasdi, Khairunnas
Syafi’i (Vol. 5, Num. 1,
January-June 2014) said that The first is that for the teacher as an
instigator of linguistic activities. The error tells him if he undertakes a
systematic analysis—how far toward the goal the learner has progressed and,
consequently, what remains him to learn. Second, they provide the researcher
with evidence of how language is learnt and acquired, what strategies and
procedures the learner is employing in his discovery of language. Third, they
are indispensable to the learner himself, because we can regard the making of
errors as a device the learner uses in order to learn.
Based on the writer’s interview with some
students of seventh grade at SMPN 1 Astanajapura, they said that they were
having difficulties in transfering the meaning from Indonesian into English in
writing descriptive text. They said that they can’t understand which tenses
that they have to use in writing descriptive text. Besides that, students
mastery of vocabulary is very low. So, when the students write in English is
very difficulties. Sometimes students lose ideas during the writing text
process. To overcome the problem, one of the solution is by analysing student’s
errors. In this case the errors that student’s make in descriptive writing.
in Error analysis have been conducted by several references related to the
study such as from Mustafa, F., Kirana, M.,& Bahri Ys.S, (2017 January, Vol.6
No.1), the topic is “Errors in EFL Writing by Junior High School in Indonesia”.
The result of this research showed that the dominant errors for surface
strategy taxonomy were selection (72%) followed by omission (14%), and addition
(10.6%). In the linguistic category taxonomy, the most dominant errors types
were word form (48.8%), followed by article (35%), nonfinite verb (34.9%), verb
tenses (34.3%), plurals (33.3%), and preposition (30%).
second research related to the write’s study done by Pertanika J. Soc. Sci,
& Hum (Vol.20 No.1, 2012) with they topic “Error and Variations of TESL
Students Written Dscription”. The resech focused of this study was to highlight
different kinds of errors and variation that emerge in the writings of ESL students.
The finding releaved different grammatical error in their writings which were
basically releated to the categories of verb phrases and noun phrases in
sentence that resulted in giving misinformation, one of in the word choice of
the students in the three ethnic group pf the study. Wereby these choice might
be the reflections of their cultural background and world view.
research will be focussed on the errors produced by student in writing
descriptive text based on the Surface Strategy Taxonomy. Based on this problem,
the researcher wants to conduct a research entitled: “An Error Analysis On The Surface Strategy Taxonomy In Writing
Descriptive Text Made By Students At The Seventh Grade of Junior High School”
research is held to make the problem solving from the students errors in
writing. The research is focused on the seventh grade students of SMPN 1
Astanajapura in writing descriptive text and emphizes of the error on the
surface strategy taxonomy. The data will be analyzed by using error analysis
theory based on the surface strategy taxonomy.
of The Problem
on the background of study, the researcher formulates the problem statetement
and subsidiary research question as follows :
are types of errors on the surface strategy taxonomy in descriptive text?
are the most dominant errors made by students in writing descriptive text?
of The Study
on the formulation of the problem, the objectives of the study in this research
find type of errors on the surface strategy taxonomy in descriptive text.
find the most dominant errors made by students in writing descriptive text.
of The Study
writer hopes this research gives benefits for the writer, the reader and the
students. These are some benefit :
the writer, this research will make the writer mastering the grammatical in
writing descriptive text.
the reader, this research gives the reader some informationthat most students
errors in writing descriptive text based on the surface strategy taxonomy.
the students, this research gives them the problem solving to make their
writing better without making some errors.
According Brown (2000:218) stated that
“the fact that learners do make errors, and then these errors can be observed,
analyzed, and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the
learner, led to surge of the study of learner’s error, called error analysis”.
In addition, Ellis and Barkhuizen
(2005:51) claimed that “Error Analysis (EA) consist of a set of procedures for
identifying, describing and explaining learner errors”.
From the explanation above, we can see
that error analysis is a set of step to observe, identify, classify, describe,
and explain the student’s error as aid in teaching or in preparation of
In this context, students may do the
errors. Bacause this is not their native language so it is fair if students do
the errors in writing. Analyzing the Errors made by students is the best way to
show the true proficiency level of target language they are learning and
acquiring at a particular point of time.
There are some reason why students do
the error. Students often made errors because they don’t master the material
first. Or may be, before writing, they have not prepare anything so the result
is not good enough and there is some errors in writing.
Difference Between Error and Mistake
In distinguishing between errors and
mistake. An error cannot be self-corrected, according to Brown (as quoted by
James, 2000:217), while mistake can be selfcorrected if the deviation is
pointed out to the speaker. But the learner’s capacity for self-correction is
objectively observable only if the learner actually sel-corrects; therefore, if
no such self-correction occurs, we are still left with no means to identify
error vs mistake. It’s means if the students sometimes uses the correct form
and sometimes the wrong one, it is a mistake. However, if the students always
uses it incorrectly, it is an error.
From the category of differences between
errors and mistake, the writer’s uses errors as an aspect to analyze data. The
reason why the errors selected in analysing the data is due to many errors in the
students writing that tend to be a problem solved. Because error could be such
dangerous problem because they are related to the misunderstanding of a concept
of material. This study tried to analyze what types of errors made by students and give some
possible solving problem.
of Error Based On Surface Strategy Taxonomy
A surface strategy taxonomy highlights
the ways surface sructures are altered: learners may omit necessary items or
add unnecessary ones; they may misform items or misorder them. Analyzing errors from a surface strattegy taxonomy holds
much promise for researchers as it is concerned with identifying cognitive
processes that underlie the learner’s reconstruction of the new language. This
also gives us consideration that students? errors are not the result of
laziness or sloppy thinking but are based on some logics, as the result of the
learners? use of interim principles to produce a new language (Dulay, et
al,1982, pp. 154-162). Those types of errors which belong to surface strategy
taxonomy are (1) omission, (2) addition, (3) misformation, and (4) misordering.
This type of error is
characterized by the absence of an item, which must appear in a well-formed
utterance. Certain linguistic forms may be omitted by the learner because of
their complexity in production. Generally, there are two main kinds of
omission; they are omission of content morphemes and omission of grammatical
of Content Morphemes
This type of omission is related to the
major constituent of a sentence such as: nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
For example: She …him nothing.
In this sentence, the learner omits a needed verb and the third singular marker
–s. It should be She gives him nothing.
of Grammatical Morphemes
This type of omission does not carry the
burden meaning. In other words, it plays a minor role in conveying the meaning
of sentence. It includes noun and verb inflections (e.g. the –s in birds,
the –s in mother’s, the –ed in looked, the –ing in
laughing, etc); preposition (in, on, at, under, etc); conjunction (and,
or, but, because, if, although, etc); verb auxiliaries (is, will, can, etc);
and article (a/an, the, those, these, etc).
For example: Marry is beautiful girl.
In this sentence, indefinite article before a singular countable noun is
omitted. It should be Marry is a beautiful girl.
Addition errors are the opposite of
omission. They are characterized by the presence of an item, which must not
appear in a well-formed utterance. It means that learners not only omit
elements, which they regard as redundant, but they also add redundant elements.
This error type is divided into
subcategories namely: double markings, regularization, and simple addition.
This error is described as the failure
to delete certain items which are required in some linguistic construction but
For example, He doesn’t knows your
This sentence shows the failure of
deleting third singular person marker –s where the auxiliary does is required.
This sentence should be He doesn’t know your name.
There are both regular and irregular in
language in which students sometimes get confused to apply the correct in
Sometimes, the apply the rule used to
produce the regular ones to those that are irregular. This type of errors is
called errors of regularization. For example, the verb eat does not became eated, but
ate. The noun sheep is also sheep in
the plural, not sheeps.
example, I putted my bag on the table he word putted is the
example of regularization in which the regular past tense –ed has been added to
the items. It should be “I put my bag on the table”.
This error is one of subcategories of
addition that is neither a double marking nor regularization, it is called
For example: We stay in over there.
The addition of preposition “in” is not appropriate used before over. It should
be “we stay over there”.
Misformation error are characterized by
the use of the wrong form of the morpheme or structure. While in omission
errors the item is not supplied at all, in misformation errors the learner
supplies something, although it is incorrect.
dog eated the chicken (incorrect sentences)
The dog ate the chicken
error has three subcategorized, namely: regularization, archi-forms, and
A regular marker is used in place of an
For example, She runned so fast.
The correct form of this sentence is She ran so fast.
The selection of one member of a class
of forms to represent others in class is often made by the learners. The form
chosen by the learners is called as archi-forms. For example, a learner may
temporarily select just one of the English demonstrative adjective this, that,
these, and those. For example: “That dog”, “That dogs”
Having his vocabulary and grammar grow
and by using archi-forms, the learner can choose various members of class as an
alternative to choose with each other. Thus, finding demonstratives is a need,
as an example: Those dog, This cats.
Misordering errors are characterized by
the incorrect placement of a morpheme or group morphemes in an utterance. For
What daddy is doing? This
question is incorrect. It should be “what is daddy doing?”
Writing is one of the four skills in
learning English. Writing is important because it can show the learner’s mind
and idea. If the learners do not show their mind with speaking, they can use
writing to express it. Before write, we should plan what we are to write about
and the purpose of the writing. After that, we can start to write. The students
are certainly makes some mistake or errors in writing because they must command
grammar and structure of each sentences. They try to write what they think on
their mind and sometimes little confused with the structure of sentences. That’s
why writing famous as a hardest skill in learning English.
According to Harmer (2004:33) state that
“writing is useful as for some other activity, in particular when students write
senteces as preamble to discussion activity”. Based on the explanation above,
the activities before we write, students gives time to think up for exploring
ideas which could be building vocabulary, writing topic sentences, selecting
the correct verb, and selectinf the correct tense.
text is a text to describe something like people, animals, places, etc. The
purpose of descriptive text are to describe and express a person, place, or a
particular object. The researcher chooses descriptive text because many student
do not understand well how to write this text correctly, especially the content
of descriptive text, that is idenfication and description.
According to Afifudin ( Vol. 7 No. 1
January 2016) said that A descriptive text provides a good platform for a
writer to express his or her feelings on a subject. As the name suggests, the
writing is a description of an object, person, location, or experience. The
essay generally includes an introduction, body and conclusion centered on a
chosen theme. The writing style is expressive and may include descriptions,
opinions, comparisons, personal perceptions and sensory perceptions. The main
objective of a descriptive essay is to relate the unique qualities of the person,
object, etc. vividly and comprehensively.
G. Conceptual Framework
From the problem that has been discussed, it can be
conclude that student’s interested in writing descriptive text. But they got
some difficulties when writing the text, so that students do some errors when
they are writing. However,
this study tries to analyze some errors that were made by the students in
writing descriptive text based on surface strategy taxonomy.
In the other side, students can write and speak English without grammatically.
The students have difficulties when they
compose words into correct sentences. Errors in writing English are the cases
which are difficult enough to be avoid. The students produce errors in writing
because they have not understand the target language. According to Richards
(1985: 96) states that error analysis is the study of errors made by the second
and foreign language learners.
To make students know where they do some
errors, the writer will analyze their work and find the errors. The writer will
analyze the tense and focus in grammatical each sentences. In the other word,
the writer will ask students to make descriptive text, after that the writer
will analyze the result. Finally, the writer will get the data, hou many errors
that students do in writing descriptive text.
In this research, the writer use
qualitative method. Because in this research, the writer will not teach students
in the class and only make an observation. Students often make errors in writing
descriptive text. So in this paper, the
writer use this method and tries to analyze what are the erroes that ofeten
students made based on te surface strategy taxonomy.
Data Resource, Data
The subject is seventh grade students at
SMPN 1 Astanajapura. The writer doesn’t take a class of students, but only 5
students from one class. So the writer will get any problems. The data that
will use by the writer is the students’ writing result. It is used to analyze
the students’ errors in writing the descriptive text based on the surface
of Data Collection
To collect the data, The writer will
give the test to the students in the first meeting. After that, the writer will
wait for the students until they have done.
of Data Collection
writer serves an instrument such as a test to the stuudents. The test type
which was used in assessing students’ writing is essay test. It is used for
knowing students’ competence in writing a descriptive test. Before the test,
the writer prepare the topic that will be given to students. Then, they are
given the test to make seven sentences about descriptive text based on the
topics provided. The writer will analyze what is the errors that students made.
To collect the data of sources of errors, the writer used an interview as
instrument for collecting the data. The interview was done to find the reasons
why the students made errors.
of Data Analysis
In this research, The data collected
were analyzed by using qualitative method. So, the technique of data analysis
will not use calculation analysis. The data are then processed based on the
procedure of error analysis. The technique for this study that will be
identified the errors from the students’ writing and then classified based on
surface strategy taxonomy. After that, the writer will summarize how many
students’ errors in writing descriptive text based on the surface strategy
taxonomy. The result will be in a form of description.