of instruction is a controversial issue in Pakistan as it is a multilingual
state so there are many different languages to speak .Everyone speak in their
own cultural language but the language
of education is crucial to learners’ academic success. It is the
responsibility of the writing program to train the students to produce
sequences of sentences which express their meaning most effectively. The
ability to put sentences together effectively needs systematic and explicit
teaching. The register or the functional style and expression should be taught.
Writing should be coherent and spelling and grammatical errors are not to be
research is conducting to investigate the issues of medium of instruction in
Pakistan that what are the challenges are there in English writting skills which
are faced by students as well as the teachers and how it effects the academic
achievement of the students. In this researcher use survey method as a
procedure to collect the data. Questionnaire and Interview are use in order to
get the response of the sample regarding the effects of English as a medium of
instruction on student writing skills. This mixed method research will
facilitate the education system of Pakistan and provide suitable solution of
the problems to the learners regarding medium of instruction.
Medium of instruction, Sample,
Multilingual, Ethnic group, Bilingual, Code switching.
Firstly I want to extend my gratitude to
Almighty Allah,who gave me courge in completion of my research project.
Secondly,my sincere thanks goes to the
chairperson of English Department Sir Zafar, especially to my supervisor Ma’am
Rabeea Mumtaz for her support and guidance.
Also like to thanks all the participants
of my research,my family,friends for their help and encouragement.
Language and education are two
inseparable concepts because education is disseminated via language. As Dube
and Ncube (2013) put it, “education and language are dependent on each other.
If education is to be attained, language has to be used and for language to
endure, survive and be respected, it has to be taught in schools”. However,
Wolff (2005) is of the opinion that “language is not everything in education,
but without language, everything is nothing in education”. Though language is
not everything in education, the language of education has always been a bone
of contention, especially in multilingual societies because of the effect it
has on educational success. Most multilingual nations have adopted bilingual
Language is the medium of instruction
which used imparting instruction in any subject at any level. The medium of
instruction is a controversial issue at all levels, especially in the societies
in which various systems of education are followed. (Nisar, & Ahmad, 2011).
Medium of instruction has a very crucial
role in transforming education and making it easy or difficult for a student.
Language is an important aspect of culture. In general, there are many factors
which determine student’s academic
success. Language is also one of them,
which affects the performance of learner..
The State of education in Pakistan is
very miserable.We have two parallel systems of education Urdu medium and
English medium. The sufferings of educational system in Pakistan are the
different forms of educational institutions which are obviously giving birth to
discrete and dissimilar social classes in Pakistani society. These are
presenting the most awful picture of the whole educational system. Every social
class can found a separate setup of education for their children. No doubt that
it is simply the murder of our national integration and uniformity.
We as a nation are divided in different setups
of education. This issue is very much highlighted
by all the policy documents formulated by almost all the governments of
Pakistan since 1947.
Our institutions are subdivided into
Urdu medium, English Medium. Some institutions have been adopted regional and
provincial languages. In Madaris Arabic is a preferable medium of instruction.
In the context of Pakistan, it is very difficult to unify all the institutions
at one medium.This issue is very much important in the medium of instruction
that what language should be use for the teaching and this effects the learners
Tayyaba and Shehnila (2013) conducted a
study entitled”Effects of change in medium of instruction on academic
achievement of students”their main objective was to find that the changes in the medium of instruction
does has any impact on students achievement.They use qualitative approach for
the data collection .The results indicated that there was no significant
difference in academic
achievement of students before and after
the change in the medium of instruction
showing that a change in the medium of
instruction does not affect the academic
achievement of students.
Charles Ewie and Emma Sarah (2015) has
carried out research on”The use of English as medium of instruction at the
upper basic level in Ghana”Their main objectective is to find out the factors
that militate against the use of English as a medium of instruction in the
upper basic level to fulfill their objective they selected qualitative approach
and purposive sampling technique.They use semi structure interview and complete
observation. The data analysis showed that the non-adherence to the use of
English as medium of instruction is due to the following factors: students’
lack of proficiency in English, the monolingual nature of the classrooms,
teachers’ willingness to use Ghanaian language in teaching, and lack of
enforcement of the language policy.
1.2 Statement of the Problem:
This study will attempt to explore the
causes for the above mentioned problems and try to analyze for the suitable
1.3 Objective of the Study:
The objective of this
study is to deal with the problem faced by the students regarding medium of instruction.Specifically, this study
will have the following objectives:
To identify the challenges faced by
students in their writing skills.
To identify the problems of the
To explore some beneficial solutions of
1.4 Research Question
What are the effects of English as a
medium of instruction on student writing skills?
1.5 Significance of the Study:
This study can be worthwhile for the
teachers as well as the students who want to be victorious in their future by
dealing with the possible challenges that will faced by them in the english
writing skills. This study is also will be fruitful to the upcoming researchers
who want to study in this similar area.
1.6 Limitations of the Study:
The scope of this study is limited as
The study will be limited to the private
school secondry level.
The tools of data collection will be
limited to questionnaire to the students and teachers.
It will be limited to the Karachi city.
1.7 Definition of Key
. 1. Medium of
used in teaching.
Subset of a
4. Ethnic group:
who share a common cultural background.
the practice of
alternating between two or more language in conversation.
2: LITERATURE REVIEW
brief discussion of the major writing theories and some previous studies on writing , writing problems and
causes of its problems are reviewed in this section.
theory have played an important role in providing empirical research into the
writing process. Linguistic theory has focused on sentences and paragraph
.Level composition ,with the goal of providing instructors insights into the
way students at various proficiency level produce writing .
theories discovered their underlying foundations in the civil argument
encompassing punctuation’s significance in organization instructional method.
Researchers, for example, Janet Emig , Patrick Hartwell, Martha J. Kolln,
Robert Funk, Stephen Witte, and Lester Faigley proceeded with this line of
thought around a similar time that a subjective hypothesis of creation was
being produced by Flower and Hayes. These researchers, similar to researchers
investigating intellectual situated creation hypothesis, concentrated on look into
giving understanding into the written work process, but on the other hand were
focused on giving academic headways tending to insufficiencies, patterns, and
bits of knowledge picked up from their phonetic research. Other research has
concentrated on catching the subjective procedures of scholars amid the written
work process through note-taking or talking so anyone might hear, while some
early research by Birdwell, Nancrow, and Ross was finished with PCs to record
authors’ keystrokes all through the composition procedure.
creation hypothesis has generally centered around sentence and passage level
organization, with the objective of giving teachers experiences into the path
understudies at different capability levels deliver composing. Stephen Witte
and Lester Faigley used definite syntactic examination to rethink the
significance of attachment and soundness in judging composing quality. Paul
Rodgers and Richard Braddock concentrated on passage structure, in discrete
examinations, keeping in mind the end goal to disperse regular
misinterpretations about the significance of conventional section structure.
psychological hypothesis is centered around picking up knowledge into the
composition procedure through the essayist’s perspectives. Synthesis scholars
have assaulted the issue of getting to journalists’ musings in different ways.
Bloom and Hayes’ article, “A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing”
looked to plot the essayist’s decision making all through the written work
process, and how those decisions compelled or impacted different decisions down
per Davies (1998:25)”Writing is urgently an imaginative procedure and
inventive journalists must figure out how to pass on their plans to the
perusers “.Grabe and Kaplan (1996:6)believe that composition does not fall
into place easily it increased through proceed with endeavor and much exertion
.To wind up plainly an innovative writer , the most ideal route is to do
attempt a considerable measure . He likewise centered around week by week assessment
in view of vocabularies, punctuation to judge the students capacities of
activity way to deal with composing concentrating on the making procedure out
of composing as opposed to on the composed ultimate result .Hedge (1988:9)
states that great journalists experience distinct process which deliver
fruitful bits of composing. She has clarified the focuses that helps the writer
during the time spent composition
The essayists begin with a general arrangement in their brain. Secondly they
consider what they need to state and who are they wrting for.
to Byrne , kroll,and (2015:45) students have a no of issues in their endeavors
to write in the second dialect because of impact of different dialects,
variation elocutions and different reasons, the English spelling ,upper casing
,linguistic use framework which has moved toward becoming in steady in complex
(2001:30) states that composition is a troublesome expertise for local speakers
and non-local speakers alike on the grounds that authors must adjust different
issues, for example, content ,reason ,group of onlookers , and mechanics.
indicated by Aragon, Baires , Gloria (2015:45) The principle issue is that
understudies don’t see a few subjects .Other points are not sufficiently clear
for them or the strategies , methods educators are applying amid classes are
not exceptionally helpul at the season of expounding on any subject.
(2002) proposes that non – local English students fundamentally have a larger
number of troubles in composing than other three phonetics aptitudes. As
affected by the way of life of the first language, dialect student may think
that its hard to get composition aptitudes through changing the vocabulary and
decent written work or arrangement should comprise of fitting and fluctuated
scope of vocabularies utilized alongside legitimate punctuation and changed
scope of sentence structures (Norish, 1983;Alamirew, 2005). As indicated by
Reid (1983) in Melese (2007: 13), when the author rehearses the decision of
vocabulary that would mirror a worry for the peruser and the reason for
composing, the organization composed by the understudy would end up noticeably
sensible to his/her peruser. In any case, writing in a moment dialect utilizing
the fitting words in the suitable place is an issue for understudies. For
instance, White (1980) states that for the most part understudies utilize ‘huge
words’ in their papers to inspire the peruser, their instructor. The push to
inspire the peruser prompts an issue of lingual authority.
Tayyaba and Shehnila (2013) directed an
examination entitled”Effects of progress in medium of guideline on
scholarly accomplishment of students”their fundamental target was to find
that the adjustments in the medium of direction does has any effect on
understudies achievement.They utilize subjective approach for the information
accumulation .The outcomes showed that there was no critical distinction in
scholastic accomplishment of understudies prior and then afterward the
adjustment in the medium of direction demonstrating that an adjustment in the
medium of direction does not influence the scholarly accomplishment of understudies.
Ewie and Emma Sarah (2015) has done research on”The utilization of English
as medium of direction at the upper fundamental level in Ghana”Their
principle objectective is to discover the components that militate against the
utilization of English as a medium of guideline in the upper essential level to
satisfy their target they chose subjective approach and purposive inspecting
technique.They utilize semi structure meet and finish perception. The
information investigation demonstrated that the non-adherence to the
utilization of English as medium of guideline is because of the accompanying
variables: understudies’ absence of capability in English, the monolingual idea
of the classrooms, educators’ ability to utilize Ghanaian dialect in instructing,
and absence of authorization of the dialect approach.
(2003) proposes that the issues experienced by understudies in composing
successfully are inferable, to some degree, to their troubles in executing and
directing the procedures which underlie capable making, arranging and
amendments of their work. Another vital component in accomplishing magnificence
in composing is the intelligent procedure – the capacity to evaluate one’s own
particular work and additionally crafted by peers. As plot by McGuire, Lay and
Peters, this intelligent part of composing is especially essential in the
educational programs of expert projects as a strategy for showing critical
thinking (McGuire, Lay, and Peters, 2009). Holtzman and associates (2005), in
an article about evaluating the composition aptitudes of dental understudies,
noticed that “the capacity to convey adequately has been perceived as a
trademark for participation in the educated callings.” (Holtzman, Elliot,
Biber, and Sanders, 2005, p. 28.
As indicated by Shaughnessey (1977:234),
writing is the record of a thought creating. It is a procedure whereby an
underlying thought gets broadened and refined. He considers, toys with a
thought and creates it. As indicated by Emig (1977:123), written work enables
us to have our thoughts promptly accessible for survey, re-assessment, a
procedure that can lead us to reevaluate and refine our thoughts, i.e. to
realize what we think by composing. Composing is a reasoning procedure at
different stages. Composing is best comprehended as an arrangement of
particular deduction processess in which authors arrange to sort out amid the
demonstration of creating. Composing is beginning and making a special verbal
steady that is graphically recorded.
Moreover, compelling written work requires a
few things: a high level of association concerning improvement and organizing
of thoughts, data and contentions, for example, a high level of precision,
complex language structure gadgets, a watchful decision of vocabulary and
sentence structures with a specific end goal to make style, tone and data
fitting for the perusers of one’s composed content.Besides, Writing as a
procedure to get item is impacted by a few components, for example,
vocabularies, syntax, association, spelling, and accentuation. I these
components are the pointers of surveying composing. In the written work English
subject, understudies need to know and comprehend those components.
Understudies have been educated sorts of content in composing expertise
Design of study:
Those sort for Examine
that will make utilized within this study is qualitative research What’s more
quantitative examination. Qualitative specialists point should assemble a
in-depth seeing about mankind’s conduct technique and the reasons that oversee
such conduct. Those order investigates the “why” Also “how” from claiming
choice making. Also this, the specialist will Additionally inspect the wonder
through perceptions to numerical representations and through Factual
examination. Alongside questionnaires that will be given out to respondents for
the measurable representational of the discoveries in the study, meetings with
the respondents Also a couple masters in this field will Additionally make
Sample Technique and Population:
The sampling technique
which will use in this study is random survey. In this sampling technique the
researcher choose the population randomly for the data collection. The sample size
for this research are students and teachers of school level. The
populace about this investigation is from school level .Girls and boys school
both and their teachers also to get the most appropriate result.
Data Collection Tools:
The data collection
instruments are interview and questionnaire. Interview data will take from English teachers and it is a
survey questionnaire so it will carry both open ended as well as close ended
questions and it will be filled by the learners and interview by teachers to collect the data.
Data Collection Procedure:
prepare a questionnaire which carry open ended and close ended
questions. Close ended question carry two options and it will be filled by
students and interview is taken from English