Abstract groups, first 20 participants as an

Abstract

This research
examines how the use of mobile educational application influences the learner’s
understanding and motivation through the process
of learning in the classroom and home
environment. This research focuses on a study the effectiveness of the application in
teaching TOEFL preparation of structure and written expression. The mobile application has become a common part of our daily lives, they used for
many kinds of purposes. It including as educational objectives in learning a foreign language which in this case the
researcher uses the Duolingo application. This paper used quasi-experimental
quantitative research. Participants included the researcher’s twelfth grades
students of Madrasah Aliyah Atqia Bondowoso. Participants divided into two
groups, first 20 participants as an experimental
group who obliged to use the application on their mobile device in classroom and home for two weeks, while the
other 20 participants grouped as a control group
which uses the traditional course. Both of the group tested using
pre-test and post-test. The findings analyzed use IBM SPSS version 22, and the model examined with Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. Thus, Duolingo
application can be considered effective.

Keywords:
mobile educational applications, foreign languages, Duolingo, TOEFL, structure
and written expression.

 

1.     
Introduction

Nowadays, technologies are highly developed and engaged in almost
all human activities. The mobile applications used for many
kinds of purposes and have become a common part of our daily activities. The learning process of the young generation today is important to go with technologies that
became the ordinary knowledge of their daily life (Kostrzewski, 2012). This kind of
process hopes to create a significant motivational aspect to the students and leads
them to the effective learning process both in the formal school and informal learning area. For these reasons E-learning
increasingly used in formal and informal school or even in a college degree. The online learning is an
excellent opportunity to learn because it creates a suitable, enjoyable and entertaining
learning environment, which creates a positive mood to the learner (Mason &
Rennie, 2006).

TOEFL is one of the standardized tests
which have applied by institutions and universities all around the world to
test the English language ability or skills of their students. It also becomes
one requirements of the registration or even graduations
in some college degree for the students. However, several students encountered
the difficulty in answering the TOEFL in section two which present them with
the Structure and Written Expression.

This paper is mainly focused on research examines
how the use of mobile educational Duolingo application in teaching TOEFL
preparation of structure and written expression. It also discusses the encouragements
of the learner’s motivation and understanding through the process of learning in the classroom and home environment. Duolingo application, which enables free online language learning.

Duolingo explored, considered and tested in terms of
appropriateness and quality of an educational application tool in the
classroom. The goal of this paper first is to know the effectiveness Duolingo
in teaching TOEFL preparation of structure and written expression on twelfth
grade. Second is to know the learner’s response
to the application. The third is to examine the student’s
motivational impact from the use of Duolingo. The research findings hope to assist foreign languages teachers
and students who take part in foreign
languages courses which combining the use mobile learning educational
application in their process of learning.

There are
researchers that explain the effectiveness of mobile technologies which can
help and improve student in language learning skills, especially in learning structure text. Mobile technologies know
gives the students to have high usability on learning, be easy and simple to work
with and some observe that mobile technology improve the satisfaction and
desire to learn useful (Viberg & Gronlund, 2013). They also found
that the disadvantages of the mobile device
for learning are the small keypad and the screen of mobile devices. It also very dependence on the use of the internet.

The other previous research conducted by Norshahila Ibrahim, Wan
Fatimah Wan Ahmad, and A’fza Shafie (2016) about the Effectiveness
Study on Multimedia Mobile Application for Children: Mfolktales Application, University
of Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia. Their research paper discusses
the effectiveness testing for MFolktales Application to measure effectiveness
level in students’ comprehension performance after using the MFolktales mobile
application. It has a significant improvement
in the Experimental group so MFolktales
application can be considered as
effective.

There is a lot of Applications in Mobile devices
focuses on Education accessible by free of even premium on the internet. This
research paper focuses on examines the effectiveness of one of that MALL namely
Duolingo. The researcher uses this application in teaching the preparation of section
two in TOEFL which focuses only on practicing the student’s written expression
and structure. It examined how the process of language learning through the
application of Duolingo recognized by the students, and which aspects and
features in this application that motivate them to use it more in their
language learning process. To understand the Duolingo effectiveness, three research
questions were presented.

a.       What are the effective aspects of using Duolingo
application in language learning process, especially in teaching TOEFL
preparation of structure and written expression?

b.      How are students
respond to the application through their process of language learning?

c.       Is there a motivational impact from use Duolingo mobile
application language learning?

 

2.      Theoretical Background

The Common Agenda of European Council (2001)
defines six levels of proficiency in a language. All level that explained
includes following skills: reading and listening comprehension as receptive or
input skills, writing and speaking as productive or output skills. There are
three fields, which should be considered
when describing mobile assisted language learning: (1) physical or touchable,
(2) pedagogical, and (3) psychosocial areas (Bachore, 2015). Physical issues in this research
related to a size of the screen, storage
capacity, battery life and the speed of processor of the mobile phone. The issues
of Pedagogical in this research refer to confirming the tasks suited to the
affordances of the mobile phone used. Psychosocial issues in this research
refer to the social environment. While laptops and desktop used for work or research
purposes, it also can be the substitutes devices for the mobile devices. Mobile devices designed for personal or
social purposes.

Based on Jarvis & Archileos (2013) if learner uses a
computer in their process of language learning. Every procedure which includes
this process that makes the learners improve their language skills counted as a Computer Assisted Language
Learning (CALL). CALL has become founded and recognized in the language education
in the early 1980s. The early domain of CALL limited only to PC or desktop
computers with a few basics programs of mechanical software. However, this area
has developed over the years to include virtual
learning environments, mobile applications, online blogs and vlogs (video
blogs), online courses, etc. The improvement and mobile technologies advance, their
widespread availability has directed to the new creation area called Mobile
Assisted Language Learning (MALL). Chen (2013) explain that this
term used both in the informal and the formal area of foreign languages
learning. The term of MALL actually is different
with CALL as of its personal or private use, the function of portable technology
devices like mobile phone allows the learner to learn in the new ways. MALL is
a quite new research area, although people nowadays have been using personal
mobile or portable devices (Gafni R. , 2009). Gafni et.al (2017 ) stated that the main
gap in MALL to the traditional language learning
process is the mobility and connectivity of the learner, besides to the potentials
of spatial and time shifts yielding improved learning opportunities.

Figure
1. Some screenshot of Duolingo Mobile
Application.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The application languages learning of Duolingo is available and accesisable freely from internet web and mobile phone.
This applicataion created in November 2011 by Luis von Ahn and Severin Hacker (2013).
Duolingo offers the so many languages learning both for non-English speakers
and English speakers. Duolingo used to practice integrating both output and input
skills of language such as speaking reading, writing and listening, also understanding
and translating the meaning of the text. The most common activities to accomplish
these skills are by after perceiving a picture that represents a word, the
learner writing and memorize the word, by translating a word and sentence from
the native language to the foreign language or vice versa, writing a word or
sentence after hearing it, matching pairs of a word
and also pronouncing a sentence. Duolingo includes several subjects, such as
modal verbs, plurals, food, animals, which further separated into several
lessons that adjusted to the learner’s level. Each subject matter in this
application represented by a node that changes its grey color which showing
that the subject has not started, to gold color, indicating the best or optimum
control of the subject matter. The gold color can downgrade or turn back to another color if the algorithm of Duolingo
resolves that some learners’ vocabulary has forgotten. In this application, the students rewarded with points,
according to their success, so they can compete against their friends to see
who has the highest amount of points.

 

3.     
Methodology

3.1  Objectives

The objectives of this paper
are to know the effectiveness of mobile
Duolingo mobile application in teaching TOEFL preparation of structure and
written expression. The pre-test
conducted to test the level of existing
knowledge that respondents learned before
getting any treatment by using the application. The post-test conducted to
identify a significant difference between
two different participants after undergoing a specific particular treatment. In
the other hands, the aim of this paper also to tested and to summarize the
relationship between the samples that have used in the testing.

3.2  Effectiveness Testing

The effectiveness testing conducted to measure effectiveness level
in students’
comprehension performance after using the Duolingo mobile application. This
testing used a quasi-experimental,
pre-test/post-test a control group design (T. D. Cook & D. T. Campbell, 1979). The pre-test and
post-test testing conducted to observe
the student’s performance before and after using Duolingo application as
compared to TOEFL preparation test in structure and written expression.
Effectiveness testing used Quasi-Experimental
Design involved two groups of respondents from twelfth-grade
students of Madrasah Aliyah Atqia Bondowoso: (i) the control group (CG), (ii) the
experimental group (EG. The study population includes students who took part in
researcher classes English language courses. They divided into two group of participants. One group (EG)
consist of 20 students used the educational mobile application Duolingo on a
mobile device. Meanwhile, the other group (CG) comprise 20 students during the
same period just learning the subject matter with traditional language learning
process. Table 1 shows the sample number involved in the effectiveness.

 

 

Figure
2. Students playing and challenge their friends in Duolingo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1 Sample Number of Effectiveness Testing

Group

Number of students (N)

Control group (CG)

20

Experimental group (EG)

20

As mentioned, the twelfth grades students of MA ATQIA divided into two groups, which are the control
group (CG) and the experimental group (EG). The aim of conducting the pre-test
of Quasi-experiment is to evaluate the
level of existing knowledge that respondents gained before getting any
treatment as the preparation for post-test. During pre-test evaluation, a TOEFL
preparation test focused only in Structure and written expression in section 2
about 20 questions in 20 minutes divided
into 10 questions of structure and 10 questions of written expression delivered
to all groups of students. A teacher assigned to give a brief introduction
about what should students do and face from the test. Then, all groups of
students asked to answer questions by themselves with limited of time. The
answers and score from the test then recorded.

After conducting the pre-test, the preparation for post-test made.
The aim of conducting the post-test Quasi-experiment
is to identify a significant difference
between two different participants after undergoing a particular treatment.
Again, students in (CG) went through the same activity as in the pre-test.
Students in (EG) given a mobile application called Duolingo. Duolingo
application used to leverage both four major skills in languages learning such
as reading, listening, writing, speaking, it also teaches the students about
translating and understanding skills. Duolingo includes several subjects, such
as modal verbs, plurals, food, animals, which further separated into several
lessons that adjusted to the learner’s level. Interactive social compete
provided in this application the students in the form of rewarded points. They
can collect points according to their success, so they can compete against
their friends to see who has the highest amount of points. The students in (EG)
were given a limited time to use the Duolingo application for 2 weeks. In this
group have experience using smartphone
and tablets. As first motivation to the group (EG) to use Duolingo in their
daily life of learning languages, the teacher gave
a reward for a student with the highest score in Duolingo application. After
two weeks passed, post-tests were given to all groups with the same format with
pre-test but the different question in
the same difficulty. The result of the
effectiveness testing will also discuss
in the next section.

In
order know the motivation response through the application. After post-test conducted. All participants (EG) asked to complete an exit survey
with close-ended questions design related to their experience with Duolingo and
their motivation through the application. Open-ended questions
allow the respondent or participant to give a greater variety of responses, but
it makes the statistic analyze difficult because the collected data must be coded or reduced in some manner. 
Closed-ended questions which this paper uses are easy to analyze statistically.
The researcher limits the responses that participants can give (Jackson, 2009). 

Hypotheses evaluation applied to summarize the relationship
between the samples that have used in the testing. For testing the hypotheses,
one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) had applied (Coakes & Ong, 2011). The one-way ANOVA calculation
produced ? value. If the calculated ? is higher than 0.05, the null hypothesis
accepted. Meanwhile, if the calculated ? value is lesser than 0.05, the null
hypothesis rejected (Sekaran
& Bougie).

There are two
null hypotheses had constructed:

1.     
Hypothesis (H01) – There is no significant difference between the
pre-test mean scores of the students in the control group (CG) and the experimental
group (EG)

2.     
Hypothesis (H02) – There is no significant difference between the
post-test mean scores of the students in the control group (CG) and the experimental
group (EG)

 

4.     
Result and Discussion

4.1 
Pre-Test Result

As mentioned above, Quasi-experiment had included pre-test and
post-test on the selected samples. Table 2 shows the descriptive analysis of pre-test scores for CG and EG. Based on
Table 2, students in EG got a better mean score
as compared to the students in CG with a small
difference. Apart from pretest evaluation, hypothesis testing to test the level of existing students knowledge
has performed. The variables tested to examine whether the relationship that
had stated is, in fact, true. The null hypothesis
is:

 

Hypothesis
(H01) – There is no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of
the students in the control group (CG), and the experimental group (EG)

Table.2 Descriptive analysis of
pre-test scores.

group

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

EG

66.10

20

6.789

CG

65.30

20

7.219

Total

65.70

40

6.929

 

 

 

 

 

In testing the hypothesis (H01), one-way ANOVA had performed
to analyze the significant difference of
all groups. According to (Sekaran
& Bougie)
and (Coakes & Ong, 2011), the p-value (Sig.)
determine the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis. With the presented
result in Table 3, the p-value is 0.720,
which is greater than ? value 0.05.

Therefore, the null
hypothesis (H01) accepted. Thus, it could conclude
that there is no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of the
students in CG and EG. The findings of this evaluation showed that the same
level of knowledge was gained by the students in all three groups. This finding
also fulfills the aim of conducting pre-test where students in all groups
should have a similar level of knowledge.

Table 3: One-way ANOVA result for
pre-test

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between
Groups

6.400

1

6.400

.130

.720

Within
Groups

1866.000

38

49.105

 

 

Total

1872.400

39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.2 
Post-Test Result

The
purpose of conducting the post-test of Quasi-experiment
is to identify the significant difference between two different students after
undergoing a particular treatment. Table 4 shows the descriptive analysis of
post-test scores for CG and EG. Based on Table 4, students in EG got better
mean scores as compared to the students in CG. To
make a conclusion on the difference between the effect of using Duolingo mobile application and traditional
learning approach, hypothesis evaluation considered.

Table.4 Descriptive analysis of
pre-test scores.

group

Mean

N

Std.
Deviation

EG

73.40

20

5.365

CG

64.40

20

6.893

Total

68.90

40

7.612

 

 

 

 

 

Similar to pre-test evaluation, hypothesis testing had conducted
to compare students’ performance for all groups after getting the treatment.
The null hypothesis is:

Hypothesis (H02) – There is no significant difference between the
post-test mean scores of the students in the control group (CG) and the
experimental group (EG).

In testing the hypothesis (H02), one-way ANOVA had performed to analyze the significant difference between the
groups. In Table 5, the p-value is 0.000,
which is lesser than ? value 0.05. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H02)
rejected. Thus, it could conclude that there is a significant difference
between the post-test means scores of the students in CG and EG. The findings
of this evaluation showed that different levels of knowledge gained by the
students from all groups. One group got
the highest mean scores as compared to other groups.

Table 5 Descriptive analysis of
post-test scores.

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between
Groups

810.000

1

810.000

21.233

.000

Within
Groups

1449.600

38

38.147

 

 

Total

2259.600

39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.3 
Students Respond and Motivation

At the end of the study, the participants (EG) were asked to complete an exit survey
with questions mostly related to their experience with Duolingo and their motivation
through the application. Overall 20 people completed the exit survey.

 

Table . 6
 Students respond and Motivation

Do you agree with the
following statements?

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Disagree nor
Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

percent

“Duolingo was easy to use”

5

30

65

“Duolingo was helpful in studying English”

5

40

55

“I enjoyed learning English with Duolingo”

5

15

25

55

“I am satisfied with Duolingo”

5

15

40

40

“I want to learn more languages with Duolingo”

5

5

60

30

 

If we combine the “Agree” and “Strongly
Agree” answers we can say 95% of group (EG) that use Duolingo mobile
application consider it easy to use, 95% think Duolingo application helps them in
learning English language, 70% enjoy learning English with Duolingo and 80% of
responder satisfied with Duolingo. In the last statement,
the researcher stated the close-ended question of “I want to learn more
languages with Duolingo” to know the motivational of students in using Duolingo
as their daily leaning language application, the answer of this statement shows that 90% of the student want to learn
more languages using Duolingo.

5.     
Conclusion

The educational Duolingo mobile application developed based on the
proposed conceptual model that has validated to see the correlation between the
elements included in the model (Steely, 2013). Based on the
validated conceptual model, Duolingo mobile application has been successfully designing and developed.

As a conclusion, this paper presented the effectiveness testing
for Duolingo mobile application. This testing conducted to observe the
application’s performance among students in teaching TOEFL preparation of
structure and writing expression before and after using the mobile application.
40 children divided into two groups. A quasi-experimental
design used to test the pre-test
and post-test results while ANOVA used to
test the hypotheses. The results from the testing shows that: (i) there is no
significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of the students in CG,
EG, (ii) there is a significant difference between the mean scores for the
students in CG, EG, (iii) their responds and motivations are 90% agree to use
Duolingo to learn more languages in their daily learning process.

Learning a new language can bore repeating task to remember vocabulary,
exercise same structure again and again. Therefore, playing with the words and
competing versus others friends can be very encouraging, thus, stimulating the
learning process. Based on these findings of the effectiveness testing proves that Duolingo
mobile application is an effective tool for students to improve their knowledge
and score in section two TOEFL preparation test of structure text and writing
expression through the application proffed that the students who used the application got better marks as compared
to the students who did not.

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