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Abstract: This essay shows how important the Fourth Industrial Revolution impactshuman life in the future, focusing on the smart traffic. The relative connections of Industry 4.0with other aspects are discussed by analyzing the new methods and new technology that canchange the meaning of production.1. INTRODUCTION:For the first time, the concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is the main topic at theWorld Economic Annual Meeting Forum which occurred 20-23 January 2016 in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland 1. Professor Klaus Schwab who is a German engineer and economist,best known as the founder and executive chairman of that forum 2, confirmed “We are at thebeginning of a revolution that is fundamentally changing the way we live, work, and relate toone another. In its scale, scope and complexity, what I consider to be the fourth industrialrevolution is unlike anything humankind has experienced before” 3.The purpose of the topic is to define clearly the relative concepts of Industry 4.0,research the applications of this evolution to human life, especially in solving the complextraffic, expressing the chances and also measuring the risks. The body of this paper is dividedinto four sessions. The first session represents the development process of Industry 4.0 to helpreaders understand the definition and history of this revolution. After that, session 2 covers themegatrends of Industry 4.0 with the aim to discover more about the key factors. Session 3 isabout the future of highways which discusses how the new technology is applied to solve thecomplex traffic, and furthermore to bring the intercommunication fiction into real life. In session4, we mention the opportunities and challenges. Finally, the conclusion sums up the essentialsin the whole paper.Figure 1: The Summary of History of Industrial Revolutions 42. BODY:2.1 The Development Process of The Fourth Industrial Revolution:2.1.1 The History:As we know, the first industrial revolution which spanned from about 1760 to around1840 is the usage of the steam engine to industrialize the production and replace the traditionalISSF HCMC 2017 51work, so England became the largest empire in this period. The second first industrialrevolution which started in 1970 and went into the World War I made mass production possible,based on the electricity and steel metallurgical. It was also the incentive which helped Americago up and become the strongest nation at that point of time. After that, the third industrialrevolution began 1960s, It is usually called the computer or digital revolution because it wascatalysed by the development of semiconductors, mainframe computing (1960s), personalcomputing (1970s and 1980s) and the internet (1990s). As a result, the Japanese took the keyfactors and later achieved rapid growth to become the second-largest economy in the world,until it was surpassed by China in 2010.Nowadays the technology is developing far beyond what we ever imagined as possible.For this reason, professor Klaus Schwab said “I believe that today we are at the beginning ofa fourth industrial revolution” at the World Economic Forum 2016 5. The fourth industrialrevolution is characterized by the smart devices, the internet, the cheap sensors and theartificial intelligence appearing everywhere which alternate the way we interacted untiltwentieth century. Consequently, it is the motivation for the development of complex machinesystems and the wide internet systems which create inevitable impact on societies and theglobal economy.2.1.2 Definition of The Fourth Industrial Revolution:The first discussion about “Industry 4.0” is taken place at the Hannover Fair, Germanyin 2011 which is one of the world’s largest trade fairs, to describe how this will revolutionizethe organization of global value chains. “By enabling “smart factories”, the fourth industrialrevolution creates a world in which virtual and physical systems of manufacturing globallycooperate with each other in a flexible way. This enables the absolute customization ofproducts and the creations of new operating models” 6.2.1.3 The Relative Concepts:The fourth industrial revolution is not only the smart and connected machine system,but also contains the Internet of things (IOT), Internet of sevices (IOS). The nature of thisrevolution is based on the virtual and physical systems, integrating all smart technology tooptimize the production, especially 3D printing, biotechnology, advanced manufacturing andnew materials, automation, robotics… “It is the fusion of these technologies and theirinteraction across the physical, digital and biological domains that make the fourth industrialrevolution fundamentally different from previous revolutions” 7.2.2 The Megatrends:Major trends in technology can be divided into three groups: physical / tangible, digitaland biological. All three are closely related to each other and to other technologies to benefiteach other based on the discoveries and advances of each group.2.2.1 Physical:The four main representatives of the major trends in technology development are mostnoticeable:Autonomous Vehicles are discussing at part 2.3.1.3D Printing: involves in the creation of a physical object by printing in layers from adrawing or a pre-3D model. This technology is completely different from making exceptions,taking away excess materials from the initial workpiece until the desired shape is obtained. Incontrast, 3D printing technology starts with loose material and then produces a product in threedimensions from the digital form. Although this technology is being used in a broad range ofapplications, it is primarily used in the automotive, aerospace and medical industries. “Ascurrent size, cost and speed constraints are progressively overcome, 3D printing will becomemore pervasive to include integrated electronic components such as circuit boards and evenhuman cells and organs” 8.Advanced Robotics: Today, robots are being used more and more in all fields, fromprecision agriculture to patient care. The rapid development of robotic technology is makingthe cooperation between humans and machines become a reality. Moreover, due to othertechnological advances, robots are becoming more adaptable and flexible, with their structuraldesign and functionality inspired by complex biological structures. Super automation plusartificial intelligence (AI) will make automation grow stronger, even with the skills previouslyaccessible only by human. AI will take advantage of its best in large data processing, including52 ISSF HCMC 2017speech and image processing, which is still the limitation of computing to date. Ultra-highautomation can allow the involvement of robots and artificial intelligence machines to analyzeresults, make complex decisions, and apply conclusions to production.New Materials: With the properties that are still considered fiction only a few years ago,new materials are being marketed. Overall, they are lighter, more durable, recyclable and easyto adapt. Currently there are applications for intelligent self-healing or self-cleaning materials,metal capable of restoring original shapes, ceramics and crystals that turn pressure into energyand many other materials.2.2.2 Digital:”One of the main bridges between the physical and digital applications enabled by thefourth industrial revolution is the internet of things (IoT) – sometimes called the “internet of allthings”. In its simplest form, it can be described as a relationship between things (products,services, places, etc.) and people that is made possible by connected technologies and variousplatforms. This will radically alter the way in which we manage supply chains by enabling usto monitor and optimize assets and activities to a very granular level. In the process, it will havetransformative impact across all industries, from manufacturing to infrastructure to healthcare.”9.2.2.3 Biological:Innovations in the field of biology in general and genetics in particular are amazing.” Inrecent years, we have been successfully reducing costs and simplifying gene expression and,recently, gene activation or modification. “It took more than 10 years, costing $ 2.7 billion tocomplete the Human Genome Project. Currently, a gene can be decoded for several hours ata cost of less than a thousand dollars. With the power of computers, scientists no longer haveto use trial, error and try again; instead of they test how the genetic variants cause specificpathologies” 10. The next step will be synthetic biology. This technology will help us be ableto customize the body by repairing DNA. Putting aside ethical issues, synthetic biology willgrow further, and these advances will not only have deep and immediate implications formedicine but also for agriculture and biofuel production.2.3 The Future of Highways:2.3.1 Autonomous Vehicles:We are currently at the peak of a similar technological shift in traffic: from driver-drivenvehicles to self-driven cars. The long-term impact of self-drive on society is difficult to predict.But one thing for sure is that wherever this technology becomes popular, life will be moredifferent than before. These cars handle large amounts of sensor data from radar, cameras,ultrasound distances, GPS, and maps mounted on cars to navigate the roads through trafficsituations. Complex autonomous vehicle systems are rapidly changing with the aim to removeany human involvement. Autonomous vehicles are predominant, but now there are other typesof self-propelled vehicles including trucks, unmanned aerial vehicles, aircraft and ships. Alongwith the development of AI, the capabilities of these autonomous vehicles are also improvingat a rapid pace.2.3.2 The Shape of Future Highways System:Imagine if you could make a consecutive ride, integrated by electric bus, autonomouscar or magnetic subway – all paid for easily through your smartphone. Imagine if the highwaybeneath your car is repaired itself, reducing the road disturbance. Imagine the temperature-sensitive road can warn us about the weather, icy conditions. And imagine some cars parkover the solar panels or the friction of footprint can make the electric.What’s driving the change? “The world’s vehicle count is expected to grow by 3% everyyear until 2030. Many of these vehicles will take to the streets of megacities, because theproportion of people living in cities will hit 75% by 2050. This means cities can no longer bedesigned around cars; vehicles must fit into cities” 11.With the popularity of the internet, within the next decade, it is expected that more thana trillion sensors will be connected to the internet. Connected sensors will be able to shareinformation from their environment and organize themselves to make our lives easier andsafer. For example, self-driving vehicles could “communicate” with one another, preventingaccidents. Besides, people can make some conversations without care about the traffic as thedata systems will analyze and optimize every cases without human effects. “By 2020 aroundISSF HCMC 2017 5322% of the world’s cars will be connected to the internet (290 million vehicles), and by 2024,more than half of home internet traffic will be used by appliances and devices” 12.Figure 2: How traffic lights are controlled. Credit: Bill Buchanan 13On the other hand, growing, ageing and more affluent populations will choose differentways to travel. Why bother with the hassle and expense of owning a car when you can payjust for the time it takes a smart, driverless, electric car to take you safely to your destination?Understanding these trends is the key to radically rethinking travel and future-proofing ourhighways. We look forward to a future where road networks are safe, accessible andinterconnected. In this future, vital road infrastructure will enable economic growth; it will beresilient, energy-efficient and sustainable. Also Climate change and the increasingly stringentregulations needed to mitigate its impact will also make it more and more important to plan andoperate resilient, low-carbon infrastructure.3. CONCLUSION:Previous revolutions did not happen “in one night,” so was the fourth revolution. But itis happening and is an indispensable step of automating the production environment further.Like the previous revolutions, it will also create richer products at lower cost, benefiting thestakeholders. The ability of millions of people to connect with each other through mobilephones, with unprecedented processing power, storage capacity and access to knowledge, isunlimited. Even so, these capabilities are multiplied by new technological breakthroughs inareas such as artificial intelligence, robots, the Internet, independent vehicles, 3D printing,nanotechnology, Biotechnology, science about materials, energy storage and quantumcomputing. About the impact of revolution to the smart highways, Tony Marshall, GlobalHighways Business Leader, said “The long-term goal will be to create an integrated transportnetwork with seamless connections to multiple modes, including cars, buses, rail, and non-motorised transport. By thinking across modes, we can move towards a connected, low-carbonfuture”