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ABSTRACTTrustworthiness in public transport is of great importance today. Citizens who usespublic buses waste a lot of time waiting for the bus at bus stop. In daily operation of abus system,  the movement of buses is affected by unknown conditions as the dayprogresses such as traffic or dispatching buses at irregular  time from the depo. Ifpeople travelling by bus get exact location of bus and the approximate arrival timebased on normal traffic conditions and also the count of passengers in bus it  willincrease the trustworthiness in the public transport. This paper proposes a system totrack public bus using GPS (Global Positioning System), tell the count of number ofpassengers in bus and also the estimated time arrival to the user. The Location of Buscan be tracked by public using Android Application. The Android application willalso contain the details of all the bus like Bus number, Bus routes, Bus Stops, Bustimings or the frequency.KEYWORDSInternet of things, IR sensors, GPS, GPRS, public transport, bus tracking, Android INTRODUCTIONNowadays, due to increase of population in cities there is a need to makea smart city. The Smart City includes major changes in city life like publictransportation, development of roads, electricity in houses, streets, commercial placesand water supply.The current public transportation like city bus should be upgraded. Thecity bus at the movement is not trackable for public but only for the bus authorities.The people have to wait for bus at bus stops for long period or till the bus comes.Currently for city Pune India, the public transport PMPML(Pune MahanagarParivahak Mahamandal Limited) has declared a timetable for buses in bus stops. TheTimetable has the information like bus number, and where the bus is going from thespecific stop and the frequency of bus. If some passenger waits for long time it musthave happened that bus fails during an ongoing journey. So, at present in PMPML theconductor calls the depot and informs them about the failure of bus and in this caseconductor wait for the bus which is coming towards there direction of destination andthen the passengers form the failed bus are then deported the coming bus afterverification of ticket which is lengthy process.So, for this reason we are going to develop a smart bus by using embeddedsystem. We are going to track the bus using GPS to get the exact location of bus. Wehave installed a microcontroller Arduino UNO in bus which is connected with GPSwith wire and it is also connected with IR sensors on both IN and Out doors withBluetooth. The Arduino UNO is connected with the app of conductor which isandroid based. The whole set of bus or the embedded system is connected to thecloud server.And there is an Android Application for public or Bus user which will help theto track bus and get the exact location of bus, the vacant seats in Bus and will alsocontain a small database of PMPML timetable. The Timetable will contain BusNumber, Names of Bus stops will also help to search source and destination and givethe information about which bus to catch. The application will also tell the estimatedarrival time(ETA) of bus to the user and calculating it by using Euclidean formula.ETA is calculated when user is standing on bus stop and the nearest bus comingtowards the bus stops at which user is standing. Further we are going to set afrequency for buses so that some trips might be saved. It will be done by using KmeansclusteringAlgorithm.Thispaper presents a system for public transportation i.e.  PMPML for Pune citywhich is successful in producing an intended or desired solution or result.Existing SystemThe public transportation i.e. PMPML is the main source oftransportation for citizens of Pune. It saves the utilization of fuel and is alsoinexpensive. Many offices goers school, university students use public transportationas the main source for going to their specific destination.Currently, at present the public transport PMPML bus are tracked usingGPRS i.e. General packet radio service device. It a wireless data service built onexisting GSM network. GPRS device works by allowing data to be stored in Packets.This data is then transmitted in efficient manner across the mobile networks. AnGPRS device has the capability to allow user to not only to have mobilecommunication but also have the internet connections. GPRS device track thelocation by fetching the relevant information from nearby GSM cell station. Thereason PMPML uses GPRS device is that it a two-way communication betweendispatcher and driver and the ability to track location information and vital vehiclesstatistics.The Time Table declared by PMPML is on the official website or theposter which is stickled on the Bus stop. The Website contains all the information ofPMPML buses which are travelling across city. But the poster on Bus stop containsinformation of buses which are going to pass by the specific bus stop. Sometimes thePMPML authorities change timetable according to the requirement of people withoutgiving any prior notice to the citizens. The posters which are stickled on bus stopsremains same all the time or maybe throughout the year. Only timetable which is onthe website is updated. So, many times it happens that people follow time table whichis stickled on bus stops which leads them for waiting long time on Bus Stops.The frequency of Bus which is set by PMPML bus authorities is basedon the requirement of the people. The Survey was constructed by Bus authoritiesmanually by getting information about crowd or traffic from the bus conductors,drivers and the ticket checker. At present the frequency is high in morning from 7amto 11am and in evening from 5pm to 9pm and there is low frequency in earlymorning, afternoon and in night after 9pm.And in case of Bus failure the conductor calls the depot manager and tellthem to send an alternative bus and till the alternative bus comes the conductor helpspassenger to get into the bus which is coming towards there direction. PROPOSED SYSTEMThis paper proposes a system for tracking city bus using advancetechniques which are capable to deliver result, information in a rapid and efficientway.We proposed the bus tracking system on Android Application taking thePune city bus PMPML into the consideration. It proposes the advance and latesttechniques for the existing System.The system will replace GPRS, the traditional way of tracking the bus byusing GPS system. The GPS will give the exact location and co-ordinates of Bus. TheGPS will be connected to the microcontroller Arduino Uno. The Arduino Uno hasweb connectivity using GSM/GPRS module. The Arduino Uno is placed in bus nearthe driver of bus. The bus will have four IR sensors each pair at front and back door.The IR sensors will count the number of passengers getting into the bus and it willalso decrease the count of passengers when they are going out of the bus. The both IRsensors are connected to with Bluetooth and it sends data to Arduino Uno viaBluetooth. The Bluetooth is efficient way to send data in limited space rather thanconnecting using wires.All the information collected by Arduino Uno like location, number ofPassenger will be updated on Cloud Server. There will be an android app for publicso that they can track the Bus and also see how many passengers are present in thebus it will also tell the estimated arrival time of Bus. The application will also containinformation of Bus like details of Bus it’s identity number, on which it stops, it halts,it’s route etc. It will also help search the bus by putting required information likesource and destination. We will be using Euclidean Distance formula to calculate theEstimated Arrival Time which will be shown on an Android Application. Further weare going to use k-means clustering algorithm for setting the accurate frequency ofBus so that no trip of any bus gets waste.1. K-means clustering AlgorithmK-means clustering is vector quantization method that is popular for cluster analysisin data mining. Medians are used rather than mean because this minimizes the norms.We will be surveying around 10 routes in different timings like in Morning,Afternoon and Evening. From this survey we will come to know how many peopletravel in a particular route in given time and also the frequencies of bus. So, we willbe applying k-means clustering algorithm to form three clusters.The first cluster will consist of data where the crowd is maximum. This means,in this cluster we will have those entries where people travel the most in a particularroute at a particular time.The second cluster will consist of data where crowd is minimum. This means,in this cluster we will group those entries where people are less in a particular route ata particular time. At this time the bus will be partially filled of less than the half of itscapacity. The Third cluster will consist of data where the crowd is moderate. It is notover crowded neither is it empty. Here the number of people travelling in a bus at aparticular time are manageable and there is no inconvenience caused to anyone.After using the data from above clusters, we will be able to assign anappropriate set of frequency for bus in specific time. This will also help to prevent theloss of trip when demand for bus is low and also help to increase the frequency whendemand is high. This will restore the faith of citizens in public transportation.2. Euclidean FormulaThis formula will help us to calculate the estimated arrival time of bus. It willbe calculated by using longitude and latitude of bus and the passenger who isstanding on the bus stop.We will take latitude as x-axis and longitude as y-axis. So, here x2 will be latitude ofbus, x1 will be latitude of Passenger standing on bus stop. Similarly, y2 will belongitude of bus, y1 will be longitude of Passenger standing on bus stop. Applying theformula and after square rooting we will get the answer which will be estimatedarrival time of bus.Estimated Arrival time is calculated for the bus only which is coming towardsthe bus stop on which the passenger is standing. Considering approximate time forsignals on route and moderate traffic.A)SYSTEM DESIGNThe figure 1 shows the block diagram of the system. The systemshows three levels: HardwareLevelItcontains the technologieswhich wearegoing to use in bus likeArduinoUno, GPS, IR Sensors and Bluetooth.AdminLevelItcontains thee cloudserver which helpsHardware leveltocommunicatebetweenuser level.UserLevelItaandroidapplicationwhichhelpsusertogetalltheinformationrelatedto Bus B)  The  technics  and  technologies  used  are  brieflyExplained bellow:1) Arduino UnoThe Arduino Uno Board which we are going to install in Bus near thedriver.The Arduino Uno comes with the following features:? Microcontroller: ATmega328? Operating Voltage: 5V? Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V? Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V? Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)? Analog Input Pins: 6? DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA? DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA? Flash Memory: 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader? SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328)? EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328)? Clock Speed: 16 MHz 2) GSM/GPRS ModuleA GSM module or a GPRS module is a chip or circuit that is used toestablish communication between a mobile device or a computing machineand a GSM or GPRS system. These modules consists of a GSM module orGPRS modem powered by a power supply circuit and communicationinterfaces (like RS-232, USB 2.0, and others) for computer. A GSMmodem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetoothconnection, or it can be a mobile phone that provides GSM modemcapabilities. GSM/GPRS modem is a class of wireless modem, designedfor communication over the GSM and GPRS network. It requires a SIM(Subscriber Identity Module) card just like mobile phones to activatecommunication with the network.3)IR Obstacle Detection ModuleVcc 3.3 to 5 Vdc Supply InputGnd Ground InputOut Output that goes low when obstacle is in rangePower LED Illuminates when power is appliedObstacle LED Illuminates when obstacle is detectedDistance Adjust Adjust detection distance. CCW decreases distance.CW increases distance.IR Emitter Infrared emitter LEDIR Receiver Infrared receiver that receives signal transmitted by Infrared emitter.4) BluetoothBluetooth  is  a  standard  wire-replacement  communications  protocolprimarily  designed  for  low-power  consumption,  with  a  short  rangebased on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Because thedevices use a radio (broadcast)  communications system,  they do nothave to be in visual line of sight of each other