Acts to place African Americans under white control were undeniably apparent during times of slavery. Following the eradication of slavery and the rising of the civil rights movement, White-Americans no longer had a justified way to have control of African Americans other than killing them. From the year of 1960 to 2000 the population of African Americans more than doubled in America. However, African Americans are seen as threats and targeted by White Americans in America. With an increasing number of African American citizens in America, White-Americans have acknowledged that they need some form of control over African-Americans in order to maintain their power. As a result, White Americans have resulted to methods like the mass incarceration of African Americans. Mass incarceration is not easily defined, but it relates to the increase the national prison population in the United States as well as the tactics used to generate this increase. However, in the United States, mass incarceration is more commonly associated with African American people. Although white people are being incarcerated as well the rate in which African Americans are being incarcerated in America is over 5 times the rate in which white people are being incarcerated. In order to maintain control over African-Americans similar to slavery, White Americans enact ways to incarcerate African Americans, place them in slave-like conditions that also decrease their chances of achieving upward social mobility, and arrest them solely for their skin color. The mass incarceration of African Americans serves as the basis of maintaining control over African-Americans. The overall logic underlying the mass incarceration of African Americans was essentially described in the early 1970s by President Richard Nixon. Nixon said “you have to face the fact that the whole problem is really the blacks. The key is to devise a system that recognizes this while not appearing to.”(Mumia) This system came to be the United States incarceration system. In order to maintain their control over African Americans, White Americans found ways to place African Americans under slavery-like conditions, in which African Americans experience only within prison. This logic gave rise to the mass incarceration of African Americans. The United States began its African American incarceration movement following the institution of the 15th amendment, which allowed African Americans the right to vote. “Incarceration served as the punishment deployed by the state against African Americans for their mass rebellion during the civil rights and black power movements”. (Mumia) The state believed that with the mass expansion of incarceration social control would be restored. Prior to the 1960s, prisons were only for the most abominable criminals however, now prisons are filled with African Americans who have committed minor crimes. (Mumia) In order to make arresting African Americans and confining them to prison easier, the United States government enacted The War on Drugs. The War on Drugs policy disproportionately targeted African American communities by administering different sentences for different drugs. Ultimately, offenders apprehended for drugs that were associated with and found in black communities like crack, received longer sentences than offenders apprehended with drugs associated with and found in white communities like cocaine. Although African Americans make up only fifteen percent of illicit drug users and are mostly dealers, they represent seventy-five percent of all drug-related imprisonments in the nation as a result of The War on Drugs. (Mumia) The War on Drugs became the lynchpin in the massive expansion of American prisons and specifically African Americans in prison. Due to tactics similar to The War on Drugs African Americans are incarcerated at more than 5 times the rate of whites. The U.S. has less than 5 percent of the world’s inhabitants, has 25 percent of the world’s prisoners, of that percentage 34 percent of it consists of African-Americans. (Mumia) Concurrently, if African Americans and Hispanics were incarcerated at the same rates as white people, prison and jail populations would decline by almost 40%. (NAACP) The system of incarceration that emerged at the end of the twentieth century is much greater than the original incarceration system. This is seen in the increase of incarcerated people in America between 1980 and 2015, the number increased from about 500,000 to over 2.2 million. (NAACP)The incarceration system places African Americans under conditions that resemble that of slavery which in turn crumbles an African Americans chances to achieve upward social mobility. Laura Whitehorn, a civil rights and anti-war activist, writes about “the precedence of movements to free political prisoners and the connections between repression of dissent and mass incarceration”. (Mumia) As a white woman activist, she says she spent nearly 25 years observing and studying about half a dozen different prisons. She concludes “what I saw in prison was the genocide of African American people”. (Mumia) This serves as an indicator as to what cruel conditions African Americans face within prison. Prisoners are often times forced to do free, or minimally paid labor that normal citizens would not normally take up. Prisoners who refuse to conform to these conditions are placed under solitary confinement. Solitary confinement is characterized under international law as a form of torture. An estimated 100,000 US prisoners sit every day in solitary confinement in soul-crushing loneliness where men and women are known to slice their arms or burn themselves alive because it methodically kills all that is human within them. These victimized African Americans lose their rights to citizenship, and are disconnected from their children, families and their communities. Following their imprisonment – if they are to ever be released – African Americans find it nearly impossible to integrate back into society due to their new brand as a felon and legal restrictions that deny ex-prisoners access to certain services and benefits, including public housing, voting rights, employment and the right to parent. A criminal record can reduce the likelihood of a callback or job offer by nearly 50 percent. But for African Americans the negative impact of a criminal record is twice as large as the negative impact on white people. (NAACP) This creates a pipeline for African Americans who have recently been freed from prison that leads right back to prison. Due to their inability to live a normal life, these people may result to living on the streets or ending up back in prison. This inability to live a normal life is similar to the life lived by runaway slaves as well as free African-Americans in The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead. Following her escape, the main character, Cora had to assimilate to the free lifestyle and find a source of income. She immediately realized her environment was not as accepting to as she had initially expected. She realizes that the black community is charged more for certain goods through legal discrimination, and the jobs African Americans received paid significantly less. Overall this made life as a free African American hardly manageable. Though Cora was ultimately “free”, her circumstances made her feel as though she was not. The narrator says “freedom was a thing that shifted as you looked at it, the way a forest is dense with the trees up close but from the outside, from the empty meadow, you see its true limits. Being free had nothing to do with chains or how much space you had. On the plantation, she was not free, but she moved unrestricted on its acres, tasting the air and tracing the summer stars. The place was big in its smallness. Here, she was free of her master but slunk around a warren so tiny she couldn’t stand”. (Whiteside, 201) Such is the case for formerly imprisoned African Americans, their chances of upward social mobility are almost the same as Cora’s chances for upward social mobility during her time period.African Americans are victimized just by their skin colors and seen as criminals in society. This is evident by the increasing number of African American inmates today. In 2014, African Americans made up 2.3 million out of the total 6.8 million prison population, this is 34 percent of the total population. (NAACP) Additionally, “African American children represent 32 percent of children who are arrested, 42 percent of children who are detained, and 52 percent of children whose cases are judicially waived to criminal court”. (NAACP) These statistics are because certain police officers are specifically seeking out African Americans to arrest. This can be seen within stop and search arrests. In the past year the use of stop and search in arrests has fallen by 21 percent to a little less than 304,000 incidences. However, when looking at the percentages of stops of white people and stops of minority ethnic people, the percentages dropped by 28 percent and 11 percent respectively. This shows that ethnic minorities are still being disproportionately stopped and searched an that race plays a part in this. People classed as African American were eight times more likely to be stopped than white people, while those from all minority ethnic communities were four times more likely to be stopped than white people. (Vikram) Similarly in the book by Wesley Lowry, They Can’t Kill Us All , Lowry describes a scene in the book where the main characters who are African-American news reporters are arrested in ferguson. The news reporters were arrested for no apparent reason other than their skin color and the fact that they were there. This is why within the book the protesters do no dispatch their names when they are questioned, instead they say that they are Mike Brown. They fear being targeted. These are physical embodiments of the belief of white being good and black being bad. The intentional act in the media of depicting young men of color as predators is seen often in history. An example of this is seen with the criminalization of the Scottsboro boys in 1931. Following this in 1989 a similar group of innocent boys known as the Central Park 5 were framed, demonized in the media, and pressured by police to falsely confess to the violent assault and brutal rape of a female jogger in Central Park. Yusef Salaam states in a video he made with the New Yorkers that he did not rape the woman and that he believed that he would simply report what he saw to the police and return home that same night. He said “I was telling the officers the truth, and they took my words and twisted them”. This shows the extent the police officers would go to in order to criminalize the African-American boys. Salaam says the police officers said the rest of the boys “ratted him out” in order to get him to falsely confess. They lied to the boys and lied on their names in order to imprison them. Within prison it was obvious to Salaam that he was hated because of his skin color, he reported seeing police officers who had tattoos of black babies hanging by their necks from nooses on their arms and said “its a signal of how bad it’s gonna be”. This serves as an indicator that racism plays a part in the incarceration system and plays a role in who police officers arrest.The mass incarceration of African Americans is essentially a “justified” way of maintaining control over African-Americans by White-Americans. By imprisoning as many African-Americans possible, the threat of African Americans is lessened by fear. White-Americans used tactics similar to that used in The War on Drugs in order to incarcerate African-Americans at drastic rates. Once placed in prison these people of color are forced to do labor as if they are once again slaves. Following their imprisonment, these now freed African Americans must return to society, assimilate and attempt to live a normal life. The circumstances that these people of color face show similarity to the conditions that freed slaves face. Additionally, not all of the efforts to imprison African-Americans were justified. Police officers lied in order to imprison African American, as seen with the Central Park 5 and they simply arrested African Americans for their skin color. Acts in order to place African Americans under white control were apparent during times of slavery and are apparent in the 21st century, not much has changed today.