Aik Ho Tan
SID: 3032 107 131
GSI: Andrew Snyder
The musical genre of “Addictive” is hip hop. It has a stable
rhythm and a slow tempo with underlying beats played by drums. This song also
has a dense texture as “call and response” is very distinct and different
voices tend to overlap with the lead voice. The sample from “Thoda Resham Lagta
Hai” is incorporated in “Addictive” in such a way that it is the background
vocals that act to support the main singer, Truth Hurts. The sample also
contributes to most of the sonic components of “Addictive”. Furthermore, the
whole musical video features belly dance by both the singer and performers. By
not crediting the third world artists and sampling the Hindi-song without
seeking permission, I believe this is black appropriation of Indian images and
First of all, as the producer of “Addictive”, DJ Quik does not
seek the permission to sample the instrumental track of the Hindi-song, “Thoda
Resham Lagta Hai”. He lifts four minutes of the original recording by an Indian
artist called Lata Mangeshkar. DJ Quik and other artists of “Addictive” such as
Dr. Dre, Truth Hurts, and Rakim then superimpose their own lyrics and drum
track over the beat. No only does DJ Quik not not seek the permission, but he
is also not the artist directly working for this Hindi musical piece. As an
outsider, he does not know the content and meaning of this Hindi-song. This
irresponsible action undoubtedly shows that the American artists and label
simply take it for granted that Hindi music can be used by them at will, and
they do not need to credit and pay for.
Secondly, the objectionable content of “Addictive” most likely
misrepresents and defames the Indian artist. The vulgar and lewd lyrics of
“Addictive,” in which Truth sings the lines “He makes me scream” and “I like it
rough,” are most probably offensive to some Indian’s religious and cultural
sensibilities. As an iconic voice to the hollywood genre, the Indian artist’s
image and character are impacted negatively and misrepresented with her
association of the song “Addictive”.
To rectify the situation, the songwriter and producers of
“Addictive” should have provided appropriate musical credit and recognition to
the Indian artists and producers. Besides, they should have officially obtained
the permission and considered a collaboration with the Indian artists to produce
a unique music genre that has a larger international market with the essence of
two different cultures. In my opinion, copyright infringement case is the best
way to address the questions of appropriation. Not only does it deter artists
from copying others’ work without giving proper credit, but it also encourages
artists to seek permission and collaboration amongst themselves to promote
As a conclusion, my verdict is Lahiri and Saregama have
the rights to receive credits for the sample of “Thoda Resham Lagta Hai” and
claim for remuneration. This issue is neither a cultural sharing nor
collaboration, but black appropriation of Indian images and music. The American
artists and label fail to credit the Indian artists, and they sample the Hindi-song
without seeking permission. In addition, the objectionable content of
“Addictive” undeniably defames and misrepresents the Indian artist.
According to UNESCO.org, migration is the “crossing of the
boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of
time. It includes the movement of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people
as well as economic migrants.” Besides, internal migration refers to the
movement from one place to another within the country. On the other hand,
international migration is a territorial relocation of people between the
countries. Throughout the U.S. musical history, I propose the Great Migration,
which occurred between 1916 and 1970 as an important musical influence
especially on blues and jazz.
The Great Migration was the relocation of around six million
African-Americans out of the rural Southern U.S. to the urban West, Midwest,
and Northeast. As a consequence, African-American voters become a significant
force in the politics. In the context of social impacts, the large scale of
migration exacerbates existing social tensions in the country. However,
migrants help transform the American society and culture by adding in the
values of diversity.
Having escaped from the racism of the northern and southern
states, African-Americans are then inspired by various forms of creativity.
During the 1920s and 1930s, the Harlem Renaissance, which is resulted in the
Great Migration played a major influence on blues music.To escape racial
discrimination, influential blues singers namely Chester Burnett and Muddy
Waters migrated from Mississippi to Chicago. As a result, Mississippi blues
music style greatly impacts the Chicago blues. This blues music style can be
distinguished by the use of harmonica, bass, electric guitar, drums, and a
rhythm section. Furthermore, blues shifts from being a rural country music to
being played in clubs and modern places. As the Great Migration continues to
unfold, the blues tempos and the song lyrics become vibrant and upbeat as
African-Americans attain freedom and inspiration in northern cities.
In addition, the Great Migration has significantly impacted jazz
music. Since the migration leads to employment and prosperity for
African-Americans, more people can afford to buy records and enjoy music.
Subsequently, this has substantially intensified the growth and expansion of
jazz music across the American society. Besides, more jazz musicians have the
opportunity to receive a better education and this leads to an improvement and growth
in their musical talents. Migration undoubtedly paves the way for the
development and creation of music, and new cultures and forms of jazz music
As a conclusion, the Great Migration is an important historical
moment when migration has been impactful. It has also been an important
influence throughout U.S. musical history, especially on blues and jazz. As
Martin Luther King said, “Jazz speaks for life. The blues tell the story of
life’s difficulties — and, if you think for a moment, you realize that they
take the hardest realities of life and put them into music, only to come out
with some new hope or sense of triumph. This is triumphant music.” These
musical genres and development undoubtedly serve as support for
African-Americans. They have then become a fundamental part of American popular
During the late 1940s and early 1950s, rock and roll is a popular
music genre that originates in the United States. It evolves from
African-American musical styles namely jazz, blues, gospel, rhythm, and country
music. The saxophone or piano is seen to be the main instrument in the earliest
style. However, guitar gradually becomes the lead instrument in the late 1950s.
I believe the inclusion of rock and roll in this course would be a significant
addition because of its powerful impacts across the politics, social and
lifestyle on American society.
Beyond merely a musical style, rock and roll has been influenced
by various types of musical styles and subsequently, it has paved the way for
self-expression, originality, and free thought. Rock and roll allows artists to
express their thoughts on political issues and to influence the government.
Rock and roll artists are also able to produce music that would essentially
unify people from different backgrounds, religions, races, and
socio-economic statuses through constant interaction in the community.
Besides that, it would be valuable to include rock and roll as one
of the genres in the “protest, politics, and cultural revival” materials of
this class because it emerges at the beginning of the civil rights movement.
Not only does rock and roll most probably pave the way for desegregation, but
it also helps both white American and African-American teenagers to identify
themselves. Rock and roll also establishes a new form of music that encourages
racial collaboration and shared experience.
In addition, rock and roll breaks the boundaries by expressing
sentiments that people are actually feeling but they do not openly discuss
about. In the early rock and roll songs, they deal with topics such as fashion
and school. Nevertheless, other themes like sex that is generally considered
taboo begins to emerge in rock and roll music. Most of the rock and roll lyrics
narrate incidents that listeners could most probably relate to.
One of the most famous and influential artists from the
rock and roll genre is Elvis Presley, who is also known as “The King of Rock
and Roll”. His music is deeply influenced by African- American blues and
Christian gospel. He has an remarkable cultural impact on the American society
as his dance moves, clothing, and recordings are regarded as representations of
rock and roll. Elvis is one of the few rock and roll artists who is still
acknowledged and respected by the American society today. Some of the audience
believe that Elvis never died and they believe that if it is not for artist
like Elvis that the social scene between whites and blacks would never have
As a conclusion, the inclusion of rock and roll in this
course would be a valuable addition because of its powerful impacts on the
American society. Besides paving the way for self-expression, originality, and
free thought, it is also considered as the herald of desegregation.
Furthermore, rock and roll breaks the boundaries by expressing sentiments that
people are actually feeling but they do not openly discuss about. Most
important, it has produced influential artists such as Elvis Presley who has a
remarkable cultural impact on the American society and is still respected by
the American society today.