Allium the Latin word given to garlic, a flowering
plant with hundreds of separate species;
which many have been gathered through human history, One of the species belong
to this (related group of living things) is the Allium sativum L. Also known as
the garlic, which is from onion family Alliaceae, shallot, leek, chive, and
rakkyo. Garlic plant is moderately tall (up to three feet) it is an erect herb
common grown as a once-a-year that is a plant that only last for a year, it has
adventurous roots and shortened flattened stem and narrow flat leaves. The bulb
called cloves with clear covering. They can easily grow in different conditions
from dry, well-drained mineral-based soil to moist organic soil, most grow in
sunny locations but a number also grow in forests, or even in swap water areas.
Allium sativum L. consist of sulfur containing compounds
such as allicin, alliin, dially disulfide, dithiin and Sallylcysteine. These
large number of sulfur compounds responsible for the smell and taste of garlic.
Dially disulfide is most essential compound which contribute in distinct and
sharp odor in the garlic. Allicin gives the tartness of the raw garlic and it
is also a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound, allicin majorly serves
as anti-inflammatory effect. Garlic contains essential oil, which is obtained by
the process of steam distillation of the garlic cloves using n-hexane as
solvent. Essential garlic oil contains variety of sulfide such as dially
disulfide and dilly trisulfide. During the processing allicin is reduced from
the oil. Commercially available garlic oil capsules generally contain vegetable
oil and a little portion of garlic essential oil because of the pungent odors.Garlic
oil has plentiful uses in the world today, its uses include the flavouring in
cuisine like salads, and sauces. The garlic oil can lower and treated high blood
pressure if regularly consume, prevention from cardiovascular disease. Garlic
oil is an efficient anti-viral, antibiotic, anti-fungal agent, which can use in
prevention from diarrhea, cough and nausea. Some studies have found results
that it can also fight against cancer.
Sampling before testing done and removal of transparent
covering of garlic was removed manually and sun-dried for two weeks. Powdered
the dry garlic cloves, then sieved and stored in a covered plastic container.
The physiochemical analyses were carried out in triplicates unless otherwise
stated. The extraction of garlic oil was accomplished with a soxhlet extractor
using n-hexane (boiling point of 40ºC – 60ºC) for six hours. The oil obtained under
reduced temperature and pressure and refluxing at 70ºC so the removal of
solvent from extracted oil product and recover solvent can be reused. The
garlic oil was stored in freezer at 2ºC for succeeding physicochemical analyses.