ANATOMY the car be able to moveANATOMY the car be able to move


The circulatory system is vital and an
essential part of the human anatomy and physiology. It provides and maintains
homeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (cardio system help
maintain homeostasis. 2010). Imagine a car engine with all its
complexity and part, and we just focus on one main and essential  part of the car system which makes it as a
car we all know about and that is the engine or as we might alternatively call
it the “heart of the vehicle” the piston inside the engine move as combustion
occurred as the result of mixing of air and fuel ignited by spark plug in the
chamber and a small explosion in turn push the piston upward by force and this
resulted in the rotation and transferring of power to the crank shaft and this
crank shaft, turn the car wheel so that the car be able to move and serve it
purpose as a transportation machine for human use. By this analogy we can see
why it is called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its ability to
achieve its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system example the
oxygen sensor that monitor the mixture of air and fuel in correlation to engine
output, the oxygen sensor system existed to maintain power output and at the
same time to prevent damage to the engine which this oxygen sensor act the same
way as the baroreceptor located in the carotid sinus and the aortic arch which
responded to the amount pressure change in the arterial wall in the human
anatomy and physiology where if prolong high pressure can damage the arterial
wall, and disrupt the circulation and ultimately endanger the heart, lungs,
brain, kidney and nearly every part of the body (The Heart/ under
pressure/ The concepts are amazingly similar and it is
magnificently engineered and at the same time, it is fascinating to learn and
be able to understand such an existent and the purpose of its creation.

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Physical activity cannot be separated
from human life the cardiovascular system is relatively connected to the
physical activity. Fatigue is an appearance respond to the duration of physical
activity and this implementation of physical activity is both directly and
naturally the body will respond to the quality and quantity of physical
activity which is undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand to
meet the nutritional need in an effort to compensate the physical activity
process and at the same time to maintain the body condition in order to achieve
equilibrium, it is also called the optimum physiological response ( Arthur C.
Guyton, John E. Hall.2017). The change in frequency of physical activity is
base upon the pre and post physical activity and this can be apparent depending
on the stat of the individual optimum physical condition. The physiological
responses are proportional to the physical activity and the responses are
different from one individual to another individual. The physiological response
which is observed and showed the difference which is due to the body condition
during physical activity which the body are prepared by doing routine exercise
or body condition were trained or not trained. And within this essay, we will
discuss the finding and present the reason for the difference between a trained
athletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in taekwondo base on its anatomy and
physiology of the cardiovascular system. And

A simple observation can be seen by
just the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test from 2
different people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart rate
and blood pressure are used to see the physiological response of the physical
activity. It is also to be clear that the returned to normal physiological
responses are also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the optimum
physical condition.  The reading of an
untrained person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while
158/62 (systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for the
untrained person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7
minutes. On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his blood
pressure is for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activity
shows the blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained person
to restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes. As we
all know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contract
and relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure.
Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by the
trained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the blood
pressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressure
existed in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulus
rhythmically. Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from the
pacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the right
atrium. The SA node is responsible for the whole heart contraction function (it
act like a car engine Spark Plug). And there are several factors which can
affect the rhythm of the SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation of
increasing temperature and other (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

The increases in blood pressure mainly
the systole pressure during the post activity is caused by the hormone
epinephrine during a physical activity. This causes the strengthening of the
heart muscle contraction and also the effect of the blood vessels widening
(dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon the person condition. If a
person has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine is limited on the
dilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressure can occur.   Also, the sweat that is produced is also an
effect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume of blood and in turn,
blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trained person has lower
blood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle and valves which are
functioning more effective due to his heart has been accustomed to physical
activity in taekwondo. His ability to returned to normal blood pressure quicker
compared to the untrained person is because of the trained person blood vessels
has a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trained person has a higher
elasticity blood vessels than an untrained person.

The blood pressure in relation to the
heartbeat is playing a vital role in physical activity and the readiness and
the condition of the body and the system of the person especially the
cardiovascular system. We have to remember that all is related to maintaining a
balance of haemostasis. As we all know the cardiac output is the sum of the
stroke volume and heartbeat and from this equation, we acquire the total volume
of blood pump by the heart per minute. 
And as we can see the number of heartbeats play an important role in
producing the total cardiac output. It can easily put as “physical activity
increase heart rate and increase stroke volume, and in turn, increase the
cardiac output” (Fox.1993 Soekarman.1986 in Akmarawita. 2012). From what we can
understand and from test result of blood pressure and heart rate during resting
stage that we observe from two sample subject, AS1 and AS2 (which has an
athletics lifestyle) both are senior taekwondo student and from two other
different subject, NS1 and NS2 (no athletic lifestyle background) both which
are from non-physically active individual, where it is found that the senior
taekwondo student has a lower number of heartbeat compare to the non-physically
active person. The data show that AS1 register 60 heartbeat/min and AS2
register 69 heartbeat/min while for NS1 register 82 beats/min and NS2 86
beat/min. We can conclude from the result of the test subject of the 2 group of
people show that a physically active person has a lower heartbeat due to having
a difference in anatomical structure of the heart muscle and the explanation
for this is that these group of people has a more elastic and thicker muscle
structure and this more effective heart structure which allows the heart to
relax and give stronger contraction during each cardiac cycle, and this is made
possible due to that they have been trained to perform physical activity
routinely. That the reason why athlete of physically active person has a lower
heart rate for pre and post physical activity is due to the stronger and more
optimize amount of blood that are able to be contracted from the ventricle
during it relaxing stage in the cardiac cycle and because of this stronger and
more effective amount of blood pump toward the lungs or the head and to the
rest of the body causes the baroreceptor to receive the amount of stretch
within the carotid sinus and the aorta arch and this sends the signal to the
cardio regulatory centre in medulla oblongata which in turn interpreted the
data it receives and gives the signal of parasympathetic input to the
sinoatrial node (SA node) to lower the amount of heart beat. So in short due to
the larger cardiac output of a physically active person that causes more
stretch on the baroreceptor, and this causes the brain to increase the
parasympathetic input and reduce the sympathetic input of the autonomic nervous
system and causes the SA node to reduce the heartbeat and balance out the
homeostasis within the system. This is the reason why the athlete or physically
active person has a lower resting heartbeat (can even reach as low as 40
beats/min) compare to normal or non-physically active person.

The heart dedicatedly powered the
entire circulatory system that enables the transportation of nutrient, oxygen,
hormones, immune system and waste that really important to the survival of the
body to function and the heart has only one concern and that is maintaining
pressure (The hearth/under pressure/ With a system that work
in coordination with not just a single organ but with all the other organ like
the lung that responsible of the respiratory system to which another essential
part that works in conjunction with the cardiovascular system that works in a
bulk flow and the autonomic nervous system which consist of sympathetic and
parasympathetic respond that play vital role in everyday respond either in
active mode of condition example sport or a adrenaline rush situation to the
relaxing and smooth and calm activity, for example, reading a book or just
having a nice evening meal with your love one to the master gland that secretes
hormone to other organ and while this response is slower compare to the fast
respond from the receptor or the autonomic nervous system are working together
to maintain haemostasis of the body. It is simply an amazing system and the
unsung hero that often goes unnoticed considering all the difference in a
scenario of physical activity in which the body needs in order to regulate and
maintain the blood pressure and blood flow, it is simply amazing and impressive
on how the cardiovascular system able to accomplish all of that without even
the need to think about it.