Assignment with and advantages of CAD packages.Assignment with and advantages of CAD packages.

 

Assignment brief – QCF BTEC
Assignment front sheet

Qualification

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Unit number and title

BTEC Level 3 Diploma in Advanced
Manufacturing Engineering (Development Technical Knowledge)

Unit 13 – Computer-aided Drafting in Engineering
Level 3 Optional

Student name

  
Assessor name

 Stuart Heal

Mike Stone

Date issued

Submission Deadline

Submitted on

 09/10/2017

 

 

 

 

Assignment title

Assignment 1- Know the national and
international standards and conventions that CAD drawings and design need to comply
with and advantages of CAD packages.

In this assessment you will have opportunities to provide
evidence against the following criteria. Indicate the page numbers where the
evidence can be found in the evidence box.

 

Criteria reference

To achieve the criteria the evidence
must show that the student is able to:

 

 

Evidence

P.1

describe the requirements of national and
international standards and conventions
relating to engineering drawing practice

 

 

 

P.2

explain which features of CAD drawings need
to comply with national and international standards

 

 

 

P.3

explain the advantages, compared to other methods, of
producing drawings electronically using a CAD package

 

 

 

P.4

describe the software and hardware that are
required to produce CAD drawings

 

 

 

M.1

explain the relationship between CAD and other
software/hardware used in manufacturing

 

 

 

D1

justify the use of CAD in a manufacturing
company

 

 

 

 

Student declaration

I certify that
the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are
fully acknowledged.
 
Student
signature: ………………………………….                                Date: …………………………

 

 

Assignment
brief

Qualification

BTEC Level 3 Diploma in Advanced
Manufacturing Engineering (Development Technical Knowledge)

Unit number and title

Unit 13 – Computer-aided Drafting in Engineering
Level 3 Optional
 

Assessor name

Mike Stone

Date issued

 

Deadline

 

 

Assignment title

Assignment 1 – Know the national and
international standards and conventions that CAD drawings and design need to
comply with and advantages of CAD packages.

Purpose of this
assignment is:
To demonstrate that you understand the key features of
national and international standards of engineering drawing along with the
advantages of CAD and other software packages

Scenario
As an apprentice engineer in a small engineering company,
you have been seconded into to the CAD department.  With that complete the following tasks.

Tasks
 
You are required to write a report, in three sections and
of no more than 2000 words, In the 1st section you are required to
describe the requirements of national and international standards and
conventions relating to engineering drawings.
In the 2nd section of your report you are
required explain which features of CAD drawing need to comply with national
and international standards.
In the 3rd section you are to discuss the
advantages of using a CAD package to develop engineering drawing over other
methods, explain the relationship between CAD and other software and hardware
used in modern engineering (manufacture) in this section you should also be
describing the requirements of Software and Hardware and justify the use of
CAD in manufacturing company (this could be related to your own employer or
on a case study of a particular manufacturing company)
 
Guidance
In Section 1 and 2 you should be looking at the following
as guidance: engineering drawing practice: BS 8888:2013, BS 5070-3 1988, BS
EN 13622:2002, ISO standards Features of CAD drawings that need to comply
with national and international standards: drawing sheet sizes and layouts,
projection – first and third angle types of line, lettering and numbering,
dimensioning, section cross hatching Standard representations: welding
symbols, electrical symbols, pneumatic/hydraulic symbols, mechanical symbols.
In Section 3 you should be addressing the advantages of
using CAD in comparison with other methods.
Advantages of CAD: quality; accuracy; time; cost;
electronic transfer of information; links with other software, e.g. CAD/CAM,
rendering software, animation software, finite element analysis (FEA) Other
methods: manual drafting; model making, etc.
 
 

Evidence
checklist

An appropriately
formatted, word processed report of no more than 2000 words covering the
appropriate sections as detailed in the brief with appropriate links to
current, relevant regulations and legislation

 

Bibliography/references
as appropriate

 

Sources of information
The course Moodle site for this module
 
Boyce A, Cooke E, Jones R and
Weatherill B – Level 3 BTEC National Engineering Student Book
(Pearson, 2010) ISBN 9781846907241.
Boyce A, Cooke E, Jones R and
Weatherill B – Level 3 BTEC National Engineering Teaching Resource Pack.
(Pearson, 2010) ISBN 9781846907265
 
 

Assessor’s comments

Qualification

BTEC Level 3 Diploma in Advanced
Manufacturing Engineering (Development Technical Knowledge)

Assessor name

Mike Stone

Unit number and title

Unit 13 – Computer-aided Drafting in Engineering
Level 3 Optional

Student name

 

 

Criteria reference

Comments

Achieved?

 
P1
 

 

 

 
P2
 

 

 

P3

 

 

P4

 

 

 
M1
 

 

 

D1

 

 

 

Student interim
feedback

 

Student Summative
Feedback on final grade

 

Assessor feedback

 

Action plan

Please review your feedback and make
suitable comments in the Student feedback above.
 

Assessor signature

 

Date

 

Student signature

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                  

Assignment 1

 

CAD drawings within
computer systems are used to support the creation of effective designs, by
increasing the productivity, quality and communication to manufacturing
industries. CAD drawings are found in electronic form (files) which can be made
physical by printing.  These types of
drawings are related to engineer
drawings which have been discussed below.

 

Engineer (Engineering?) drawings:
Is often considered more than a picture, many individuals term this aspect as
graphical language.Its
communicates the desired standard that the engineer has drawn for a worker to
implement. This helps support vocal conversations with physical evidence. 

 

To ensure all engineer drawings meet a universal standard,
governing bodies such as The British
Standards Institutions were implemented. This body published the third
revision of

8888:2017 Technical
Product Specification. This institution helps all businesses to meet the same
standardized operation, and further supports clearer communication. Moreover
this supports the desired ideal of internationalization within the engineering
sector as it allows others who speak different languages share the same common
understanding of engineer drawings. Additionally this mean outsourcing becomes
easier and empowers targets to be met regardless of language/communication
barriers.

 

BS 8888 provides the following benefits:

 

?      
Access to one reference source and reduces ambiguity

?      
Ensures the same language is conversed when presenting
graphical designs

?      
Reduces the chances for misinterpretation and aids
streamlining ops

?      
Helps transfer designs from the office to manufacturing
floor

?      
Shorten development time

?      
Reduces costs and saves time

 

The International
Organisation for Standardization (ISO) is a non-government international
organisation which operates with 162 national standard bodies. The introduction
of this enables its members to share expert knowledge and develop market lead
standards to aid in the innovation of global design standards. The organization
began in 1946 with 25 countries as
the original member base. Their aim was to usher in coordinated and unified
industrial standards. This would further open up communication channels and
enable innovation through agreed standards. ISO in 2018 operates with members
from 162 countries and 777 technical committees and subcommittees. However not
everyone still accepts the need for internationalised CAD standards and the
important role it has with pathing the way for innovation.

 

A good comparison to demonstrate the need for both national
and international standards can be made between Europe and the USA. The United
States still operate with the imperial system, whereas Europe have moved to
metric. Due to the lack of agreed internalisation within the CAD sector it
places more strain businesses to produce technical specifications for both
measurement systems. This in return places more output and wastage in terms of
time allocation and potential printing resourcing to offer a spectrum of
technical documentation. By setting internal CAD standards businesses can
slowly start to pathe
the way to internalisation of an overall agreement. This can be achieved by
using getting their customer base to comply to their internal requirements and
this should eventually saturate into the global marketplace. Additionally,
acceptance from larger companies can further speed up this process.

 

The main features that CAD drawings need to comply with
regards to both national and international standards have been discussed below:

 

Line thickness: relates
to the pen and plots used within the production of the document (0,13mm Gray). Parts that are printed in
black  from AutoCAD are drawn in 1 of 7
colour bases. The table below outlines this in greater detail.

 

 

 

Description

Line
thickness in mm

Color
Codes

Out Line

0.20 or 0.25

White, Cyan, Yellow,Blue

Hidden Line

0.00 or 0.05

Blue, Gray, 241

Center Line

0.10 or 0.15

Green, Red, Blue

Note

0.18 or 0.20

White, Cyan, Green, 41

Thin Line

0.00 or 0.05

Gray, 08, 111

Reference Line

0.000

Magenta, Gray

Hatch Line

0.000

Magenta, Green, Gray,red

Color-9 to 256

0.000

 

Dimension
line

 

 

Leader Line with Arrows

0.000

Gray Color-9,or 8, Red

Text

0.18 or 0.20

Cyan, Green,

 

Text and Height
dimensions: Indicates the relevant size and font type that need to be used
when creating a CAD drawing. The typical fonts used are called Romans.shx –
Romantic Simplex”, “ISOCPEUR.ttf”. However exceptions can be
made for the following fonts for Arial and Time New Roman.

 

Scales: offer guidance for
the correct scaling parameters that the drawing are required to meet. Most
common scales found within autoCAD software are 1:1,2:1 etc.

 

 

 

 

To ensure compliance the following software and hardware packages have
been created by companies to support with Technical drawing standards that are
both national and international.

 

AutoDesk is  the most prominent software package within
the educational system due to the scope of programmes it offers. This ranges
from AutoCAD to Inventus to support in the production of both 2D/3D modelling.
This package was developed by John Walker to support many industries with
computer aided designs. This industries mentioned range from construction,
engineering to entertainment.

 

Hardware that a business will
adopt to support CAD within the company’s operations, will depend on the scale
of detail which is required. Competent computer systems are required to be
installed to support the creation of CAD drawings.These computer systems
require higher RAM, Hard drives and processing powers to offer optimal efficiency.
Due to the nature of technological advancements company’s need to review
hardware and software packages consistently to maintain compliance and stay in
range or ahead of its competitors. This included updating processing power to
meet changes in software updates.

 

Additionally Monitors need to
offer clear resolution and limit the distortion of imaging. This can be reduced
by using bigger systems that are compatible with 4K to offer increased accuracy
when creating such technical drawings.

 

Plotters which have slowly
been phased out of operation due to the introduction of more technically
capable printers, have limitations with the sizing of the device. This relates
to the size and scale that a company needs to produce larger drawings. However
smaller printers can produce the same standard quality on a smaller scale.

 

Scanner allow hard copy
drawings to take digital form. When as business seeks to introduce such
products into the work based operations the following needs to be considered.
The resolution at which the device can processed and size of the scanner. This
equipment has many advantages due to technological evolution and broadened
communication channels. With the ability to digitize physical documents
information can be passed more freely between internal company structures and
customers. Digitized information can be sent across the globe due to e-mail
systems. This offers many opportunities for products to be adapted to customer
needs quickly, and further offers the ability outsource production teams which
can reduce costs. 

 

Moreover the introduction of Tablets
(PDA) such as IPads have further facilitated the ability to complete CAD drawings on the move. This enables
more customer friendly approach to design as the customer can be present at the
time. This empowers standards and requirements to be established clearly and
further aid the production team with effective budgeting strategies.

 

 

 

Software
and Hardware relationship

From looking at the many types of
software and hardware packages available to companies, it is clear to see that
both areas are dependent on each other. Without the use of autoDesk software
packages, sketches can not be digitized and dimensioned with the accuracy that
computer systems can offer. Additionally without the hardware such as printers
the finished drawings will not take physical form. Both packages have the
ability to further support the compliance with national and international
standards as software packages are coded to comply, and templates can be
created to ensure drawings are printed within the BS888 standards.

 

The ease of access is another way to
determine a clear relationship between the both due to portable devices.
This  enables drawings be created on the
move and  increases accessibility to all
workers. As mentioned previous portable devices have enable business to become
more customer focused, with a new way to approach working methods.

Hardware offers the ability for
businesses to evolve through the use of powerful computer based systems. This
increases their scope to introduce new software packages into the workplace
which can further improve efficiency and potential to offer new services. The
use of such systems to turn computer coded algorithm in physical form require
consistent review periods to help identify upgrade opportunities and
requirements.

There is a third entity that ties into
the relationship between software and hardware, this is known as peopleware.
This term refers to development and maintenance of computer systems within the
business. This extends further to solving issues with software creators,
productivity and team dynamics. These individuals are vital for the efficiency
of business operations and the potential to grow with technological
advancements.  

 

CAD has brought many benefits to the
manufacturing process, these have been discussed below:

 

?     
3D CAD files can quickly be transferred to drive Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
production software. In turn, CAM drives machine tools and other capital
equipment through computer-numerical-control
(CNC). CNC manufacturing processes included multi-axis milling, turning,
sheet metal work (such as brake presses and punches) and high speed machining.

?     
CAD/CAM software
enables you to check tool paths before any material is cut. The opportunity to
run a simulation and so verify the complete machining process in a virtual
environment is critical for keeping waste and scrap costs to a minimum.Additionally
a result from less scrap include less energy consumption and reduced tool wear
costs.

?     
CAD/CAM simulations also enable you to identify how long
the production run time will take.
Clearly this is useful for project planning, as well as the budgeting of
throughput, material supply and delivery.

?     
As the CAD model is the source of the manufacturing data,
the design intent is preserved and the dimensional
accuracy is retained. In contrast, converting data into 2D drawings and
then back into machining code, inherently introduces the risk of making
mistakes.

 

 

CAD
Manufacturing Benefits: Tooling?

?     
Tooling and die suppliers can accurately and relatively
quickly prepare with CAD data for molded, casted or pressed parts.

?     
Tooling, die, mould and component suppliers can be
simultaneously sent CAD data from anywhere in the world, both for quotes and
for the production of parts.

?     
3D CAD equips the manufacturing engineer with the means to
relatively quickly design tooling, jigs, fixtures, custom gauges and components
for workholding.

CAD
Manufacturing Benefits: Outsourcing

?     
For some often lucrative contracts, the ability to handle
3D CAD data is a prerequisite. Prime manufacturers and their tier 1 suppliers
sometimes mandate this for smaller manufacturers further down the supply chain.

?     
3D CAD enables the automatic
generation of bills of materials, giving the option of quotations for
outsourcing.

?     
If you are that way inclined, production can be outsourced
to lower cost parts of the world, with the potential to overcome language
barriers, as the data is digital.

?     
3D CAD software interfaces with prototyping and
manufacturing processes by exporting data files in standard formats. These
include STL, IGES and STEP.

?     
Others in the supply
chain (or indeed other development process stakeholders) can view,
manipulate and add notes to 3D CAD models without having to purchase the
software. Instead low cost or free CAD viewers make it possible to communicate
and offer feedback on CAD models.

CAD
Manufacturing Benefits: Inspection and Additive Manufacture?

?     
Inspection can be enhanced by
checking physical parts against CAD models.

?     
Coordinate Measuring
Machines (CMM) can check accuracy, based on the CAD data generated at
the design development stage.

?     
3D printing (additive manufacturing) can be produced
directly from CAD data. Different 3D printing technologies can be used to
produce final production parts in a wide variety of materials (polymers, metals
and even ceramics), depending on your requirements.

 

Overall it is clear to see that CAD
drawings have enabled the manufacturing process to evolve with technological
advancements. CAD offers many benefits as discussed above which further
increase operational scope. However this is all dependant on the investment
companies are willing to make into both software,hardware and peopleware. Without
these investments the ability to manufacture efficiently and with greater
accuracy will be hindered. This can see competitors increase their scale and
gain greater market share. It is vital that drawings created comply with
National and International conventions to aid in the production technical
drawings. This will further enhance the company’s ability to communicate and
outsource.

 

Some features of modern CAD systems
include:

?     
Solid modelling

?     
Creation of engineering drawings from the solid models

?     
Freeform surface modelling

?     
Automated design of assemblies, which are collections of
parts and/or other assemblies

?     
Reuse of design components

?     
Ease of modifying the design of a model and the production
of multiple versions

?     
Automatic generation of standard components of the design

?     
Validation/verification of designs against specifications
and design rules

?     
Simulation of designs without building a physical
prototype

?     
Production of engineering documentation, such as
manufacturing drawings, and Bills of Materials required to build the product

?     
Import/Export routines to exchange data with other
software packages

?     
Output of design data directly to manufacturing facilities

?     
Output directly to a Rapid Prototyping or Rapid
Manufacture Machine for industrial prototypes

?     
Maintaining libraries of parts and assemblies

?     
Calculating properties of parts and assemblies

?     
Aiding visualization with shading, rotating, hidden line
removal, and so forth

?     
Inclusion of programming code in a model to control and
relate desired attributes of the model

All of the above add
another layer into the importance of CAD within the engineering environment.
Each feature offer companies the capacity to innovate within in their own
infrastructure. This facilitates growth of the business and offers a greater spectrum
of diversified opportunities.  

 

To conclude CAD have
brought a new standard to the creation of engineering/technical drawings. This
has been achieved through the improved accuracy computer systems can offer
businesses. Moreover the production of such documentation has been sped up
through the use of computer systems. This enables more designs to be created
within prior to the production of the parts/product. This gives greater scope
to offer a tailored and bespoke business product that meets the customer needs.
Customer focus has been a key staple in the survival of business within the
recent years. The use of portable devices with CAD software as facilitated the
previous point further, and promotes the adoption of personalized experiences
for the business target audience.

 

 

 

Feedback

 

Layout: Add
a report structure (Abstract, Title, Table of Contents, Numbered sections,
conclusion and or recomendations).

Feel Free
to use diagrams and captions to explain ideas.

You could
look at BS8888 and add some content such as Drawing sheet sizes (example: A3
420×297, left margin 20 mm and all other margins x10 mm), title block sizes and
mandatory content (Name, Drawing Type, Date etc…), types of projections (first
angle, third angle). You can use captions from BS8888 to explain these better.

 

Very good report overall! Great Work!