Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be defined by the
federal explanation in united state authorized cod, Individual with Disability
Education Act follow as,
A child is classified as having ASD when the
developmental disability significantly affect the teenager verbal and
non-verbal communication or social interaction
before age three that is generally evident and it special effects the teenager
educational performance this is a neurological illness that affect brain
chemistry and physical brain also severely incapacitating lifelong
developmental disability the disease manifested by few or many symptoms and
effects the variety of bodily functions even two children’s can be
diagnosed with the same form of autism
and their physiological abilities are different people living with ASD overlap
with other disorders and will display characteristics of ASD a person with ASD
can appear if they are in there own world
And have a unique set of physical, sensory, and
mentally impaired social situations are different in some cases ‘and a children
sometime can speak and some time they cannot speak with ASD as one of many with
or without meaning and delayed speech, repetitive movements and hyperactivity
in ASD population unusual reacting to sensory stimulation through touch, taste,
hearing, smell and site person with ASD may be unbelievably excellent at other
skills and one the one child with ASD might be show cognitive impairment and
severe physical impairments on the other way the other might be having good
skills at English, math , art, science
and memory but can be lacking in their social skills also the face inability to
control emotions , reactions , and behaviors ‘they could
show a flat facial expressions and appearing to be emotionless also they
may be more sensitive .
Onset and Population of ASD
ASD usually appear at
the very early age usually it is nearby at the age one the beginning, or point in time in which the
disorder is predictable Symptoms can be prominent from a number of months old
to age three person with ASD might be of any compete social, culture or
economic group males are diagnosed then females and both sexes are affected and
maybe he or she undergo in combination
with other situation such as: deafness, Attention Deficit Disorder, Down
Syndrome, cognitive disabilities, blindness, Cerebral Palsy, Epilepsy, etc the
experts says there are no two children with autism that are the same.
Common Myths about Autism Myth:
Myth: poor eye contact by people who are faced ASD
Fact: they express their personality in a different way more or less
than a typical child’s
Myth: people with ASD have a preference to be lonely
Fact: other way they may be interrelate with others but they not have
social abilities to do so efficiently
Myth: they do not have feelings and care about others
Fact: They progression their mind-set in a different and or tricky way
and People with ASD do in fact have emotional feelings but they do not have the
ability to unexpectedly attach and build up a connection.
History of Autism – Introducing the Pioneers
The word ‘AUTISM’ comes from Greek word
‘autos’ meaning ‘self’ The
initial known documented case of ASD was in the court case of Hugh Blair of
Brogue. In 1747, Blair’s younger brother appeared in court for a result on
Hugh’s mental capacity to agreement a marriage He profitably petition the
annulment of his marriage so that he can gain his brothers legacy (Autism in
History…88). Hugh’s disagreement was that his brother was mentally not fixed
there was no evidence that Hugh had autism but nearby was clear proof that he
showed personality of ASD. A Swiss psychiatrist, named Eugen Bleuler, first
used the word in 1911. He described the symptoms of intellectual illness into a
category. The word was then puzzled with emotional troubles and schizophrenia
until 1943. at some stage in 1940s, the two pioneers Leo Kanner and Hans
Asperger described children with the characteristics we recognize today as
being faced ASD . ASD became “autism” in 1943 when John Hopkins University
psychiatric consultant Leo Kanner recognized it as a distinctive neurological
situation lacking an explicit reason. At that point Kanner invented a latest pinpointing
class called “Early Infantile Autism”, sometimes referred to as the
Kanner Syndrome. In 1944, Hans Asperger, an Austrian Pediatrician in Vienna, in
print a 5 doctoral opinion and described patients also use the term “autistic.”
He and Kanner both described comparable characteristics of impaired
communication and societal communication. Even though both doctors described a
broad range of symptoms, it was Kanner’s description that became the most
widely recognized. The term “Asperger’s disease” became universal when it was
made public in 1981, as a situation in the past described by Hans Asperger.
The Autism Spectrum Disorders
ASD features a collection of diagnoses that are measured clinically
separate from another, however are many times grouped together for learning
purposes, as their characteristics often times overlap. These disorders are
listed and expanded below:
syndrome and High Functioning Autism (HFA)
Developmental Disorders (PDD)
Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
Autistic Disorder is a social situation impairment noted by a failure
to exchange nonverbal behaviors such as, facial expression body posture eye
contact, and gestures. The beginning is prior to three years old. The symptoms
of ASD usually it can be observed by 18 months of age. Some may have a delay in
one or more areas of development, while many other autistic individuals may be
more typical of other ASDs. 7 The main signs and symptoms of autism involve
problems in the following areas: social communication interaction, reasoning
and age appropriate play, these impairments are evidenced by be deficient in of
appropriate exchange and understanding of, verbal, emotional, or body language.
People with ASD have issues in developing age appropriate activities and
relationships. There Routine behaviors
are present since they may repeat trial or words in an obsessive method.
Examples include muted others’ sounds, finger/hand flapping, twisting, and
sudden or slow complex whole-body movements. Dangerous or fantasy play
inappropriate to developmental level may be displayed. An autistic child may be
persistently preoccupied with certain objects such as a hot coffee cup or
poisonous chemicals. This person has a level of impaired development of
communication and may or may not present an attempt to use further forms of expressing
themselves to allocate thoughts of pain, illness, joy, or sadness. Some
individuals may present adequate speech at normal or odd moment, and may or may
not have the ability to talk with others.
Asperger’s Syndrome and High Functioning Autism (HFA)
These conditions are considered by a lot of scholars and fitness care
professionals to have overlapping signs and symptoms of every other. The
behaviors might include further or less common aspects of each other.
Asperger’s disease is the impaired skill to exploit communal cues such as body
language, theoretical way of thinking, suitable eyeball contact, and
socialization skills. They tend to have odd behaviors such as being extremely
sensitive in responding to stimuli, also exhibit unusual or repetitive
movements. They are able to seen as autistic people who talk well. Experts
argue that although verbal speech is intact, other 8 communication problems may
exist. Asperger’s can use verbal communication whereas autism usually has
limited or no speech. A person with Asperger’s is also described as one who
shows no interest in developing human bonds. The degree, to which Asperger’s
kids actually are aware of their trouble making bonds with others, is often
misunderstood. Asperger’s and Autism together share the issue of recognizing
the extinction and intentions of others. Children with Asperger’s disease,
generally have a typical to complex intellect stage. They may exhibit a
satisfactory thoughtful of vocabulary and grammar subjects with a decrease capability
to focus and or understand humor.
Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
The term Pervasive Developmental
Disorders is a diagnostic category used to describe many neurological disorders
that engage impaired social skills and repetitive behaviors. They take in
Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder not Otherwise
Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)*, and Rett’s
Syndrome*. (Rett’s Syndrome and CDD will not be included as they differ and
have a more progressive course where loss of skills and abilities occur over
time.) The PDDs are characterized by their developmental delays in functional
and communication skills. Traditionally children with autism were said to have
a PDD, implying that a child demonstrates disorganized development. They are
pervasive, meaning the disease affects many areas. Learning ability is affected
but may improve to other levels. The condition is something that happened
during early development, and not from an accident or injury. They are medical
disorders that are not caused by parenting errors, 9 toxins, poor care, etc.
Some cases may be genetic. There is a wide spectrum of impairments associated
with PDD and ASD, which can range from mild to severe. One cannot outgrow PDD
and to date there is no cure. The condition is expected to be present for the
entire life span.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and
The characteristics of PDD-NOS are presented as they have overlapping
symptoms with Atypical Autism. Atypical Autism is the primary diagnosis given
to children who have some form of autistic symptoms but do not have all of the
particular traits to form a diagnosis of autism. These types of cases, mainly
the milder forms, are usually discovered later in life than prior to age three,
as general autism. People who are closely related to the affected individuals
have a higher than expected incidence of these disorders. The cause may
possibly have a genetic basis, but there are no facts to support that notion.
The symptoms and severity of Atypical Autism can vary from person to person.
Some traits of people with Atypical Autism may be that they have a difficulty
with language skills, whereas they display limited or no verbal ability and
possess a smaller vocabulary than other children in the same age
group.Individuals with PDD-NOS usually experience an area of impairment however
10 their overall living skills are more advanced than people with autism. They
often do not know how to react in an appropriate manner to other people’s
emotions. People with this disorder often have difficulty understanding
non-verbal cues or language that is not meant to be taken literally. These
factors often lead to uncomfortable social interactions, therefore re-enforcing
the tendency of people with atypical autism to prefer solitude.
There is no single best treatment for all children with ASDs, because
no two individuals are alike. What may work for one may not work for another. A
well structured treatment plan designed to teach specific skills is ideal and
very important. Before a family chooses a treatment regime, it is important to
talk with the child’s health care team to understand all the risks and benefits
that are involved. Routine medical, dental, physical, and mental exams should
be a part of the treatment plan. It may be hard to tell if a child’s behavior
is related to an ASD or caused by another underlying condition. For example, a
head banging child could have an ASD, or they could simply just be having
headaches. In some cases a thorough physical exam is needed. Many different
types of treatment options exist such as auditory training, discrete trial
training, vitamin therapy, anti-yeast or anti-allergy therapy, music therapy,
occupational therapy, physical therapy, and sensory integration. The different
types of treatments fall into the following four categories: Complementary and
Alternative, Medicine, Behavior and Communication Approaches, Dietary
Approaches, and Medication.
Causes and Cures
Parents should be reassured that
at the present time, there is no scientific evidence to support claims that MMR
vaccine or any combination of vaccines cause ASD. No one really knows what
causes autism. Autism is not caused by one’s income, parent’s educational
level, race, ethnic, or social background. Autism can be present in any new
born, any where in the entire world. Some use to think that autism had a direct
connection with people who were poor. This is not the case because there are
many people that are wealthy that have conceived children with autism. Bad
parenting was even considered as a cause, at one point in time, in the early
years of the disorder. We do know that according to the Centers for Disease
Control, the incidence rate for autism spectrum disorders is now as high as 1
in 110, including 1 in 70 boys. It is now known to be a heterogeneous disorder,
with milder forms being more common than the classic form. Autism is the
fastest growing developmental disorder in the U.S., representing a 600 percent
increase in the past 20 years. No one can explain why the disorder is growing
Suspecting ASD and Seeking Support Immediately (SASSI)
An initial suspicion of any ASD means that you should seek professional
medical attention immediately. Many options are available to help families
provide the best treatments available. Supportive services and testing
procedures will help families cope with fears and issues. A good acronym to
remember is SASSI.
Seek Support Services
Any child with a suspected delay or symptoms of ASD should be given the
opportunity to enroll in an age-appropriate early intervention program
immediately, even before a definitive diagnosis is available. (Pediatric
Neurology 39.1 (2008)) Children are entitled to many federally mandated
programs and services for children with developmental delays or deviations.
Although criteria may vary slightly among states, eligibility for these
programs is based on the presence of a delay, not on a categorical diagnosis.
Conduct Lead Screening
In some cases a child may show developmental delays and behavioral
problems that can be a sign of lead poisoning. Children at young ages have a
tendency to put many objects in their mouth. These objects could be from a wide
range of household items such as crayon, toys, or even tools. With the range of
risks involved, lead screenings are performed routinely when a child shows
signs of a developmental delay or disorder. If elevated lead levels suspected,
refer the child to a local emergency center.
Perform Formal Auditory Assessments
In some cases, a child that may appear to have a developmental delay
could actually be hearing impaired. There is a strong relationship between the
child’s hearing, and his communication ability. If a child’s hearing impairment
goes undiagnosed, he may experience delays in development and communication
issues. A child with a communication or developmental disorder may also have
related issues with sensitivity to sound. If a physician is concerned after the
screening there should be additional testing done. One the previous issues are
ruled out, it may be necessary to seek additional help from an ASD specialist.
Conduct Autism Screening
If the developmental screening raises concern it is highly recommended
that parents follows up with an autism screening and diagnosis specialist, (Da
Capo Press, 2009). Most autism screening tools are designed to detect autism
spectrum disorders, concentrating on social and communication impairments in
children and focusing on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) criteria for autism.
Some professionals use the 17 International Classification of Disease (ICD-10),
which is a diagnostic manual developed by the World Health Organization.
Although all autism screening tools have limitations, most notably by the lack
of well-validated screening tools available for children 18 months of age and
younger. It is vital that your child receive the proper screenings necessary to
determine that he or she has autism.
Solutions for Cognitive Problems
Teachers can visually deliver instruction in the
Color-coded notebooks or colored markers and pens can help students
differentiate subjects. Color can also be used to highlight directions.
Use multisensory delivery.
Dramatic presentations, comics, PowerPoint presentations, overheads,
movies, and online resources involve both auditory and visual processing.
photos. Alphabet and number lines or mnemonic devices also provide visual
cues for students. Bulletin boards, banners, posters, and flashcards
reinforce content area knowledge.
notes or other handouts to help students
stay focused during verbal instruction.
Use visual cues.
Schedules, calendars, timetables, and lists of items to complete can be
placed on students’ desks. These can take a variety of forms: written,
pictures or symbols,
When information must be presented verbally,
teachers can support students with ASD when they:
out instructions; use hand signals
instructions in the same place always.
the first examples with students.
instructions after allowing 10 seconds for processing time; speak slowly
and clearly, modify tone and pace.
extra time and resources.
analyze tasks and break them into small steps
students in presentations.
Students with ASD might also need a variety of
adapted materials, including:
and alternative communication) devices and voice output devices,
software designed for struggling learners or children with ASD,
types of paper – textured, graph, lined papers (raised lines, colored
lines and mid-lines),
books, audio and video tapes,
variety of writing utensils: golf pencils, magic markers, highlighters,
chalk holders, pencil grips, and stamps and stamp pads,
writing boards, recipe stands,
Many students with ASD are not “fond” of writing,
whether they are engaged in the mechanical process itself or the slow process of
translating oral language into the written word. Because so much of the
curriculum output expected from students includes written work, it is
imperative to have alternatives for students with ASD to demonstrate their
knowledge of what has been presented in a lesson.
The following are some alternative ideas for
students with ASD to demonstrate their knowledge:
Solutions for social problems
In some cases, parents
can minimize unpleasant sensory stimulation. For example, parents can avoid
certain clothing fabrics that their child finds intolerable. Others may buy
secondhand clothing, or wash new items repeatedly, to minimize the unpleasant
rub of new fabrics. It can be very difficult for parents to find these causes
of distress especially when the child is very young or does not communicate
well. There may be some detective work and experimenting needed to find the
Where are source of
distress cannot be realistically avoided, there are behavioral techniques to
allow a child to gradually accept the unpleasant sensory sensation. With time
and patience, Desensitization can
be a powerful technique. For example, a child may scream uncontrollably in
supermarkets. The parent will explain to the child that they will stand outside
the supermarket for 30 seconds then go home. The next time, it may be explained
that they will go in for 30 seconds then go home. Time spent in the supermarket
is gradually lengthened until the child has adapted to this environment. For
more information, see the Behavior Management Strategies fact
There are other
interventions available that help autistic children to integrate their senses
and have more pleasurable interactions with people and their environment. See
the Sensory Integration Therapies fact
sheet for treatment options.
Temple Grandin’s ‘hug machine’ is
an interesting option for some children with sensory problems.
This treatment is based
on the theory that behavior rewarded is more likely to be repeated than
behavior ignored. It focuses on giving the child short simple tasks that are
rewarded when successfully completed. Children usually work for 30 to 40 hours
a week one-on-one with a trained professional. Some practitioners feel this
method is too emotionally draining and demanding for a child with autism.
Yet, years of practice has shown that ABA techniques result in new skills and
improved behaviors in some children with autism.
TEACCH (Treatment and
Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children)
This is a structured
teaching approach based on the idea that the environment should be adapted to
the child with autism, not the child to the environment. Teaching strategies
are designed to improve communication, social, and coping skills. Like ABA,
TEACCH also requires intensive one-on-one training.
Solutions for social
Children with Autism have
persistent problems and difficulties with social interactions and
communication. They may not properly understand the social rules and etiquettes
which makes socializing difficult for them.
Their abilities are
completely different than those of their fellow peers . This in turn makes them
conscious and secluded which as a results put autistic children at a much
higher risk of being bullied by other children at school.
Children with Autism
learn differently than other kids. They need more attention and a distinctive
teaching approach. These children could suffer due to ineffective teaching
methods. As educators, teachers have a responsibility to ensure that the
quality of education their students receive is customized to their learning
capabilities. The best way to help an autistic child learn to their best
potential is to understand what problems they face at school.
Recommendations for disabled students
Autism is characterized as a unique set of neurological disorders that
affects the individual’s communication abilities, reasoning, learning, and
physiological response. Children with autism demonstrate behaviors and skills
that can range from mild abnormalities to severe developmental challenges.
Although clinical patterns vary depending on severity, all children with ASDs
lack the normal ability to fully engage in mutual social interaction,
communication, movements, behaviors, interests, and activities. One has to
remember there are no two people with autism that are alike. Interventions must
be individualized and catered to accordingly, the person’s specific autism
traits. Although autism may not be curable, it is manageable through treatment,
support systems, resources, and awareness. Sharing knowledge and awareness
prevents discrimination, neglect, and dispels myths. It is vital for parents,
employers, the general public, and counselors to know the significance of the
autism spectrum so that society can be aware of the warning signs,
interventions, and breakthrough technologies that allow the person early
treatment. Most importantly, if we do not act to detect the early developmental
abnormalities, we will 39 delay the individualized care to the autistic population,
and ultimately decrease their quality of life.