Bacteria is a form of asexual reproduction.

Bacteria

Bacteria
reproduce by binary fission which is a form of asexual reproduction.
It can sexually reproduce but it isn’t a true sexual reproduction.
Simply, binary fission is when a pathogen splits into two. Once a
certain size,determined by the nuclear material to cytoplasm ratio,
the cell wall in the middle of the cell breaks down. DNA starts to
unwind and replicate, after enzymes have broken the circular piece
of DNA, and division begins after the replication has finished.
When conditions are best the pathogen can reproduce every twenty
minutes and the time between each division is called the generation
time.

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Viruses

In
RNA form pathogens the process of reproduction begins when it
attacks an animal cell by attaching to it. Then the pathogenic RNA
enters the cell but cant be used. It uses reverse transcriptase to
translate the pathogen RNA into pathogen DNA in the cytoplasm. The
pathogenic DNA is integrated in the DNA of the host in its nucleus.
This then causes new pathogenic genome RNA, MRNA and protein coats
to be produced. New pathogenic particles are produced and leave by
exocytosis and the pathogenic DNA stays and the process repeats.
Pathogens are released from the cell were it either undergoes lysis
or it buds from the cells surface.

In
DNA form pathogens, it infects a new cell, usually, by endocytosis
and forms a plasmid within the cell. It could also be taken into the
cell by fusing to the host and releasing pathogens into the
membrane. When the pathogen is taken in by endocytosis, its protein
coat is digested and then its DNA is released into the host cell.
Once its inserted, the pathogen will incorporate themselves into the
host genome and will be replicated. After it is replicated it will
leave the cell which causes the cell to undergo lysis.

Fungi

It
can reproduce sexually and asexually. When it is single-celled it
can asexually reproduce through budding which is a process similar
to DNA synthesis and mitosis. DNA synthesis happens through a
process called interphase and is an intense and organised activity
in which the cell synthesises a new lot of cell components so that a
new, whole cell can be produced. After this, mitosis occurs which
has multiple steps and ends with a cytoplasmic division of the cells
and production of a new cell wall.
When
multicellular, fungi reproduce by producing spores, which can be
both sexual and asexual. Asexual spores are produced by simple
division of spores at the end hyphae which then spreads to a new
location.

Please
provide a description of how the following reproduce with regards to
life cycles and vector/host interactions:

Helminths

Helminths
are parasites which are usually known as worms or nematodes. They
are unable to reproduce within the animal or whatever the host
organism is. So instead of reproducing in the animal, the nematode
would live in the intestinal tract and produce eggs. The eggs are
then shed in the faeces of the animal and either the eggs will
become infective or hatch into the larvae, usually whilst in soil.
If it is in an area with contaminated water then the animal will
drink the contaminated water that will contain the infective eggs.
The eggs will then hatch and grow to an adult with the host.

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