Beckett, or smartphone and have sexual conversationsBeckett, or smartphone and have sexual conversations

Beckett, Holmes and Walker (2017) and Hawkins
(2017) confirms that Sexual Exploitation occurs where an individual or group
takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a
child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity in exchange for
something the victim needs or wants, and/or for the financial advantage or
increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been
sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual. They might
be invited to parties and given drugs and alcohol. They may also be groomed and
exploited online (Hawkins, 2017). It can involve violent, humiliating and
degrading sexual assaults, including oral and anal rape (Sex Offenders Act,
2003). In some cases, young people are persuaded or forced into exchanging
sexual activity for money, drugs, gifts, affection or status. Child sexual
exploitation doesn’t always involve physical contact and can happen online when
young people may be persuaded, or forced, to send or post sexually explicit
images of themselves, take part in sexual activities via a webcam or smartphone
and have sexual conversations by text or online (Child Exploitation and Online
Protection, 2011). Social networks like Facebook, Instagram, snapchat, flip gram
etc. facilitates and gives access to perpetrators to victimize young people due
to parents having lack of knowledge or less control over the fast-growing
technology (Child Exploitation and Online Protection, 2011). Finally another
form of sexual exploitation can also happen to young people victimized by gangs
in neighborhoods, communtity or school (Home Office, 2006) and (Firmin and
Pearce 2016).

The Sex Offence Act
2003 has been a process of change and amendment since Sex Offence Act 1956
chapter 69.  The offences are up to date
which changes were enforced on or before 27 December 2017 (Open Government
license v3.0, 2017). Some children and young people are trafficked into or
within the UK for sexual exploitation which the Law Sexual Offence Act 2003 illustrates
offences of child sexual exploitation, trafficking, family child sex offences
and Notification order chapter 42 (Sex offence Act, 2003). Child trafficking
and modern slavery are child abuse, children are recruited, moved or
transported and then exploited, forced to work or sold (Adesina, 2014). Many
children are trafficked into the UK from abroad, but children can also be
trafficked from one part of the UK to another (Sex Offenders Act, 2003) and
(Haynes, 2015). Certain forms of child exploitation in trafficking involves
domestic servitude, forced marriage, begging, transporting drugs, nurturing
cannabis farms, forced labour in factories or agriculture and benefit frauds
which comes under Section 2 Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Haynes, 2015). Barnardo’s
and Local Government Association (2012) and Beckett, Firmin, Hynes, and Pearce
(2014) commented that most sexual abuse isn’t reported, detected or prosecuted.
Most children don’t tell anyone that they’re being sexually abused (Barnardo’s
and Local Government Association 2012) and (Beckett, Holmes and Walker 2017).
It’s a crime that is usually only witnessed by the abuser and the victim (Chase
and Statham, 2005). The top seven most common countries of origin for potential
victims of trafficking recorded in 2016 were Albania, Vietnam, the UK, Nigeria,
China, Romania and Poland (Open Government Licence v3.0, 2017); (Hawkinks,2017)
and (Firmin and Pearce, 2016). Brayley, Cockbain and Gibson (2014) stated that
there is no typical victim of slavery, victims are men, women and children of
all ages, ethnicities and nationalities and cut across the population. However,
it’s normally more prevalent among the most vulnerable or within minority or
socially excluded groups. The problem is much bigger than shown in official
statistics, as most crimes are not disclosed and/or reported. The Department
for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) 2009, supported by research in the
field acknowledges that boys and young men, as well as girls and young women
can be sexually exploited (Department for Education 2014c). Hetero-normal
social environments meant that there may be fewer ‘safe spaces’ for young
people to explore healthy same-sex relationships than there are for those
exploring different-sex relationships. Experience of harassment when ‘coming
out’ is thought to push some young gay men towards a more secretive approach to
sexual contact with others, which could mean exploitative same-sex
relationships could be facilitated and hidden (Brayley, Cockbain and Gibson,
2014). The stigma faced by some gay, bisexual or trans (GBT) young people is a
potential for exacerbating vulnerability – for example, being asked to leave
home and/or experiencing violence due to their sexuality or gender identity

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