Before recorded history, human beings
discovered that grape juice, when exposed to naturally occurring yeasts,
becomes wine (Torr, 1974:14) and it is the process called “Fermentation”. As a
result it has this unique flavor that satisfies individuals. Therefore
throughout the years alcohol plays a vital role and has become a culture in any
type of occasions such as weddings, birthdays, Christmas and a lot more.
Obviously, an occasion will not be complete without alcohol.
In many societies, drinking behavior
is considered important for the whole social order, and so drinking is defined
and limited in accordance with fundamental motifs of the culture (Mandelbaum,
Unfortunately, alcohol can result to a
negative approach to other. Aside being one of the harmful causes to health, it
can also be dangerous to our society even to other individuals. ALCOHOLICS are for the most part dissocialized
people; people who are somewhat dependent, over sensitive, shy, frightened; who
feel isolated, guilty, and remorseful; people who increasingly have dropped out
of their emotionally meaningful groups; who have increasingly lost interest in
the values and attitudes that are most important to their society (Bacon, 1957:
Vol. 10 (10), 35-44).
When a person drink alcohol without
self-consciousness, with emotional problem and the inability to make the right
decision most likely to commit aggressive criminal offenses such as homicides,
sexual abuse, assaults, child abuse, robbery, murder and more.
This section will discuss the flow of
the study and explain and understand the relationship of crime to alcohol
considering the definition of variables and its relationship with each other.
The problem most often associated with
heavy drinking, however, is alcoholism. Simply put, alcoholism is addiction to
alcohol, but beyond this basic definition the symptoms of alcoholism can be
difficult to pinpoint. They include a craving for alcohol, lack of self-control
when drinking, a high tolerance for the effects of alcohol, and physical
withdrawal symptoms, such as sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, when alcohol use
ceases (Torr, 1974:14).
According to Robins & Przybeck (1985),
alcohol initiation occurs earlier and earlier, on average adolescents now take
their first drink at the age of 12 years. This problem seems to be wrongfully
underestimated, despite the fact that it holds numerous negative consequences:
onset of drinking at an early age has been found to be associated not only with
later alcohol dependence, but also with drug abuse, law violations, risky
sexual behavior and aggressive behavior during adolescence (Psychiatria Danubina,
2013; Vol. 25, Suppl. 2: pp 99–101).
The drinking population can be
represented by a continuum ranging from those who drink alcohol without
problems, through those who drink with problems at a level which allows them to
function relatively normally, through to those who are dependent drinkers
suffering withdrawal symptoms. In between there are many shades of grey. While,
without doubt, crime can be associated with dependent problematic use of
alcohol, many of the problems the police deal with are not a result of
dependent drinkers but are ordinary drinkers who have ‘binged’ and cannot
control their behavior (Dehan, A, 1999: p. 1-2)
However, alcohol dependence according
to the ICD-10 criteria (three or more have to be fulfilled) was diagnosed in
94.1% of the alcoholics with an early onset (? 25 years), but only in 62.2% of
those with late onset (P < 0.0001). Significant differences between these groups were found for the following criteria: preoccupation with drinking (P < 0.0001), impaired capacity to control drinking (P < 0.01), strong desire to drink alcohol (P < 0.01), and a trend towards a lower rate of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. The alcoholics with late onset reported fewer previous detoxifications and a lower actual alcohol consumption (European Psychiatry 18 (2003): 112–118) Also according to Peter Bjerregard and T. Kue Young (1998, p. 158), Misuse of alcohol has many effects on health but in Inuit the most important are accidents and violence resulting in cuts, bruises, fractures, head injuries, etc. Drownings, falls, frostbite, burns and pneumonia are other results of intoxication and there is a direct association between alcohol misuse and suicides. In a longer perspective, drinking also leads to social problems in the home such as spouse and child abuse or family breakup, and to economic problems and loss of jobs due to instability at work. Finally, fetal alcohol syndrome is a serious condition of infants whose mothers have consumed large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy. Because alcohol is a primary factor in such a large variety of problem behaviours and consequences, the focus is on alcohol specifically rather than on related issues such as fetal alcohol disorders or other abused substances (Korhonen, 2004: 2). According to Klingemann & Gmel, (2001), Alcohol consumption is linked to many harmful consequences for the individual drinker, the drinker's immediate environment and society as a whole. Such social consequences as traffic accidents, workplace-related problems, family and domestic problems, and interpersonal violence have been receiving more public or research attention in recent years, indicating a growing interest in a broader concept of alcohol-related consequences. As for Gmel & Rehm, (2003), On the other hand, however, social consequences affect individuals other than the drinker e.g. passengers involved in traffic casualties, or family members affected by failure to fulfill social role obligations, or incidences of violence in the family. Ultimately, however, these events have an impact on society as a whole insofar as they affect economic productivity or require the attention and resources of the criminal justice or health care system, or of other social institutions ( World Health Organization, 2004: 59). According to Oxford Dictionary of Sociology, an offence which goes beyond the personal and into the public sphere, breaking prohibitory rules or laws, to which legitimate punishments or sanctions are attached, and which requires the intervention of a public authority.' Society regards the victim of alcohol as possessing free will and capacity to understand his relations to society, hence his failure is regarded as vicious. This condition has been accepted without question until very recently. Both the decision of the courts and modern teaching assume that the irresponsibility of persons who commit crime under the influence of spirits, is a subterfuge to diminish responsibility. Crimes committed by persons intoxicated, or under the influence of alcohol are constantly increasing (T.D Crothers, 1914: p. 859). Its harmfulness for health is known and this feature of it is a reasonably big burden on the Hungarian public health care. At the same time consumer satisfying services are not considered to be criminal activities and even consuming itself is legal, not illegal. So being under the influence of alcohol (to be drunk) is not regulated by the legislatures in the field of criminal law, but crimes committed under the influence of alcohol are evaluated and sanctioned separately. If the consumption of alcohol leads to commitment of crime, the influence of alcohol will be direct or indirect (Deres, P, Ph.D: p27). The social understanding of the study of deviance and crime examine cultural norms; how they change over time, how they are enforced, and what happens to individuals and societies when norms are broken. In sociology, social deviance or deviance means those behaviours or characteristics that violate significant social norms and expectations and are negatively valued by a large number of people ( Nalah, Bala, A, Ishaya & Daniel, L, 2013: p, 1) We all know that alcohol vital role is for individual's satisfaction but nowadays alcohol seems to be problematic situation for all over the world not because of its increasing rate but because of its new definition. Eventually, a lot incidents have been reported relating to alcohol and it is definitely a deviance for its violating the norms of drinking alcohol which is only for celebration and a violence free. Social Bond Theory of Travis Hirchi's states that Travis Hirschi's control or social bonding theory argues that those persons who have strong and abiding attachments to conventional society (in the form of attaciuIlcnts, involvement, investment, and belief) are less likely to deviate than persons who have weak or shallow bonds (Chriss, J. 2007: p. 1)