Conflict: It is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. In order for the conflict to exist, several factors must be present
1. People must have opposing interests, thoughts, perceptions, and feelings.
2. Those involved must recognize the existence of different points of view
3. Disagreement must be ongoing rather than a single occurrence
4. People with opposing views must try to prevent one another from accomplishing their goals. `
Conflict can be a destructive force and can also be beneficial when we use it as a source of renewal and creativity. It can be viewed in two ways. First, it can be considered as the negative force that makes people feel uncomfortable and make them less productive. In another way, it can be viewed as natural part of the organizational life and beneficial to the workplace. There are four types of conflicts. They are: Interpersonal within a person who got engaged in two or more activities that are incompatible, Interpersonal which occurs between two or more people interacting and have incompatible goals, Intragroup within a group when members disagree over goals and leadership, Intergroup between groups or divisions that disagree over a task or a piece of information.
Conflicts may arise from both personal and organizational context. Personal context includes the perceptions, cross-cultural differences, lack of motivation. Organizational context includes Goal Incompatibility, Uncertainty, Resource Scarcity, Reward Systems, and interdependence etc.
In order to overcome the effects of the conflicts, management or third party uses Negotiation. The term Negotiation is derived from a Latin word negotiates which means to carry on business. It is defined as the process with the help of which two or more parties involved in a conflict over outcomes attempt in reaching an agreement. It is the constructive, positive alternative to arguing and is aimed at building an agreement rather than winning a battle. Negotiations can occur in the business place and in everyday situations outside of the workplace when there are more possible outcomes from a situation in which two or more parties have an interest, but not determined what will be the outcome. For example, it can occur between a buyer and seller in the purchase of a second-hand car or even between groups of friends deciding on what film to watch. There are four basic third-party roles involved in the negotiation process. They are:
1. Mediator: Mediator is a neutral person whose main focus is to facilitate a negotiated solution by reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives to the involved parties. They are more commonly seen in labor-management conflicts and in civil court disputes
2. Arbitrator: They go about as the expert for directing the assertion between the gatherings and can be asked for by the gatherings or authorized by the gatherings by court or contract. The specialist of them changes as per the standards set by the gatherings or court law. The real preferred standpoint of having a referee is it generally brings about the settlement.
3. Conciliator: Their activity is to build up a casual correspondence interface between both the gatherings and are broadly utilized as a part of worldwide and group debate. They participate in truth discovering, translating messages and help the gatherings in achieving an understanding.
4. Consultant: Consultant is a talented and fair outsider who endeavours to encourage critical thinking by means of correspondence and investigation and to enhance the relations between the clashing gatherings.
Negotiation Styles: There are five long-recognized styles of negotiating that characterize the approach the person is taking in order to resolve the disputes or make a deal with the other party. Each negotiator may have a different style of negotiation and with the awareness of own style, and what the counterpart brings may make a bumpier road to successful outcomes. Above mentioned five styles will be followed by the negotiator and exhibit the certain characteristics.
1. Competing style: This style is used when the negotiators need to get quick results and is based on the expected result I win – You Lose. In this style, competitor asserts their interests and offer the results that are more favorable for them and the competing style is mainly focussed on the outcome of the process rather than the relationship and also making an effort to deceive and exploit the weakness of the other party. This type of situation often may lead to a deadlock as there is no chance of meeting two high competing approaches.
2. Accommodating Style: It is quite opposite to that of competing style where the relationships are mattered between the parties rather than the outcome. The result of this maybe I lose – You Win. If one of the party is high in competing for style, the domination of the party increases and other party generosity may be overlooked as a sign of weakness. It involves the tendency in helping another party even by giving up your own needs and also allows us to focus on issues that both sides agree on rather than those of disagreement.
3. Collaboration Style: It involves exploring the individual as well as mutual interests in an effort of satisfying everyone’s needs. This style usually results in I win – You win model where both the parties try to build trust to satisfy their needs, search for creative solutions acceptable to both parties by sharing ideas among themselves. It is one of the best-chosen styles as both the parties will get benefitted. The main disadvantage of this style is as the information is shared across the parties, they must make sure that no party takes advantage of exploiting the data of the other party.
4. Avoiding Style: It is a capable and reasonable outcast who tries to empower basic intuition by methods for correspondence and examination and to upgrade the relations between the conflicting social events.
5. Compromising Style: It is where both the gatherings trade off something for getting the advantage. It is a fractional win, incomplete lose circumstance. This style is utilized as a part of the business arrangements between the general population known and reliable. As per the hypothesis, this style requires best quality arrangement preparing.
Types of Negotiation:
There are two types of negotiation based on the relationship between the negotiators. Distributive negotiation mainly based on the impersonal nature of negotiation which is not usually used to build relationships. The integrative negotiation which is based on creating benefits for both the parties that can help in creating a long-term relationship.
Distributive Negotiation: This is also called as slicing the pie bargaining or win-lose bargaining and emphasizes distribution of negotiated thing among the parties involved. In this one party gets and one party loses whereas both the parties try to protect their benefits without looking the other party interests. There are some principles in this model like when slicing a pie, most valuable information is negotiator’s best alternative to reaching an agreement which cannot be substituted by anything. They can enhance the ability to get the alternative with the help of following strategies: determining prior to negotiations, improve upon their alternatives, researching the other party alternative, setting high aspirations, using objective-appearing rationales to support offers and appealing to norms of fairness.
Integrative Negotiation: It is also called as win-win or expanding the pie negotiation and is mostly based on the collaborative effort. It requires a high degree of trust and relationship, sharing information about preferences and priorities, asking diagnostic questions, making package deals, making multiple offers simultaneously that can capitalize the expectations and attitudes and use pre-and post-settlement strategy for a successful win-win negotiation. It is the best way in order to create a long-term relationship along with mutual gain.
Following are the six important strategies that can be used in the negotiation process are:
1. The negotiating process is continual, not an individual event: Outcomes of the process are good if the relations are good and the relations must be developed over time. It is the reason for which negotiators constantly look for the opportunities to enhance the relationship and strengthen their position. The result of the negotiation may be determined even before individuals meet for the discussion.
2. Think Positive: Numerous mediators feel belittled themselves as they don’t see control inside them. It must be trusted that the results that are raised in the process are genuinely necessary by the gatherings. Much of the time, mediators have more power than they might suspect.
3. Prepare: Data is significant anytime in transaction. Keeping in mind the end goal to get the data, play out the examination on the history, past issues and comprehend the qualities and shortcomings of both the gatherings. The more learning they have about the circumstance, the better position they will be to arrange.
4. Think about best and worst outcome: We need to be ready for both the positive and negative outcomes even before the negotiations begin. If the expectations of both the parties are known prior, it will be easy to achieve a middle ground in the overlapping areas.
5. Be articulate and build value: This is the key where the difference between good negotiators and masters are separated. Present all your thoughts and ideas to both the parties such that they see a value in it. When presenting, be clear about the expectations and also discuss the consequences and how proposed solution will be beneficial.
6. Give and Take: When a person gives something up or concedes as part of the negotiation, always make sure to get something in return. Maintaining a balance will establish that both parties are equal.
Stages of Negotiation:
In order to achieve a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured approach which includes the following steps:
1. Preparation: This stage involves ensuring all the pertinent facts are known to all the parties beforehand and clear all the questions that they have. Undertaking the preparation before the discussion about the disagreement will help in avoiding the conflict in further stages and prevent the time wastage during the meeting. It is also needed to discuss when and where the meeting takes place and set a limited timescale in order to prevent the disagreement continuing.
2. Discussion: In this stage, all the individuals involved in the negotiation present their understanding of the situation. It is helpful in taking notes during the stage and record all points put forward in case there is no need for further clarification. It is extremely important to include the skills like questioning, listening and clarifying and when disagreement takes place it is easy to make the mistake of speaking much and listening little. Both the parties should have equal opportunity to present their case.
3. Clarifying Goals: Considering the discourse objectives, interests and perspectives of both the gatherings of contradiction ought to be illuminated and in light of that, it is frequently conceivable to distinguish some shared conviction. With elucidation, we can maintain a strategic distance from false impressions that may make issues and hindrances achieving a gainful result.
4. Negotiate towards win-win outcome: In this stage, all the option methodologies are talked about and the bargains that should be possible from the two sides can be considered. A definitive objective of the transaction is to get a win-win result. Bargains are regularly positive choices which can frequently accomplish more prominent advantage for all concerned contrasted with holding to the first positions.
5. AgreementIn view of the exchanges and the substitute arrangements, the assertion can be accomplished by understanding the perspectives and interests of both the gatherings. It is basic to a specific end goal to keep everyone in receptive outlook so as to accomplish a satisfactory arrangement. Any understanding that is made ought to be impeccably certain so the two sides recognize what has been chosen
6. Implementing course of action: In perspective of the trades and the substitute courses of action, the attestation can be proficient by understanding the viewpoints and interests of both the social events. It is fundamental to a ultimate objective to keep everybody in open viewpoint in order to achieve a palatable course of action. Any understanding that is made should be faultlessly sure so the two sides perceive what has been picked.