Contrastive translate a source to with the

Contrastive Linguistics (CL) is an independent discipline within the field of applied linguistics. CL was developing to fulfill new needs arising in foreign language teaching. There is also another term of CL as “the systematic synchronic study of similarities and differences in the structure and use of two or more language varieties, carried out for theoretical or practical purposes.” (Bugarski 1991: 77) The theoretical CL provides an adequate model for the comparison, while the practical/applied CL is to conduct actual contrastive analysis. So, we can define CL as the systematic comparison of two or more languages, with the aim of describing their similarities and differences, focusing, however, on differences, and it is predominantly practical. Translation Studies (TS) is a field study of translation, or it can be defined as an academic discipline of translation. James S. Holmes describes this discipline as being concerned with “the complex of problems clustered round the phenomenon of translating and translations” (Holmes 1988b/2004: 181). Translation studies has become more prominent as the number of publications has increased so has the demand for general and analytical instruments such as anthologies, databases, encyclopedias, handbooks and introductory texts. Both CL and TS are related to language and linguistics in general, and to applied linguistics in particular. Both of them deal with two or more different languages at the same time. They use some similar theories to analyze or to describe language and linguistics. This similarity in their objects of study makes it difficult to draw clear boundaries between CL and TS, since they share many features and actually overlap in numerous relevant aspects. Both of them will use linguistics theory; for CL, those are used to analyze about the contrast between two or more languages, while for TS, those theories are used to translate a source to with the best acceptance. To make an acceptable translation, a translator needs to know about the linguistics aspects in target language. So, he/she may choose a suitable word for his/her translation. Since a word may have some meaning, a translators needs to know which one is the best choice. A translator may know the differences on linguistics aspects between one language and others by using Contrastive Textology. For example, the difference on noun phrase in Indonesian and English. Those differences can be analyzed by using Contrastive Textology. To get the required data, a translator can use a corpus-based approach. A corpus is “a collection of pieces of language that are selected and ordered according to explicit linguistics criteria in order to be used as a sample of the language.” (Sinclair 1995: 17) By using corpus, a translator can find many articles can in a minute without any difficulty. A corpus can be used to apply a great many computerized tools in order to extract information: search of lexical units, syntactic structures, frequency of use, etc. Corpora offer a wide range of possibilities for linguistics analysis. Now, the develop of corpora enable researchers to compile and structure corpora in the most appropriate way to provide the information required, carefully selecting the texts to be included. It is not anymore a matter of “gathering a sufficient quantity of information, but rather selecting the data that are relevant to the linguistic mechanism one wishes to focus on.”(Maniez 2002:293). 

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