Decision-making process for
low-involvement products are relatively very short, it starts with the need
recognition and ends with the product purchase. For high-involvement decisions,
consumers must go through the evaluation stage in which different alternatives
are evaluated and compared against each other. Some consumers may put more
weigh on the product availability and the payment method, and use them to
evaluate the products. The shirt at store M is cheaper than N, but M is located
in a shopping mall while N is store located on way to work, and they are too
busy to go to the mall. This stage will involve more decisions if they are high-involved
goods. For instance, if a consumer is buying an iPhone X, she may go to an
authorized Apple Store with the guaranteed warranty service from Apple rather
than a local electrical device store which offers a lower price.
Stage 5. Post-purchase Use and
At this stage, consumers will know if
the product they purchased is what it was supposed to be. If it is, they
satisfy with what they bought and are likely to create advocacy for the brand.
If it is not, the post-purchase dissonance (buyer’s remorse) is very likely to
occur. Obviously, dissonance happens if a product or service does not perform
exactly like what they are advertised. Fancy ads will make consumers
expectations go beyond what the product can really offers. Dissonance often
occurs with relatively expensive products that are only purchased on occasion.
Consumers who experience dissonance
often regret that they should have spent more time searching for more
independent information, or waited to get a better bargain, spend that money on
something else useful. When this occurs, this is the problem for the sellers
and may create adverse effect for the brand. Consumers may end the B2C
relationship with the brand by stopping buying anything from that brand again.
Even worse, consumers may create bad word-of-mouth by telling everyone how
terrify the product was.
Firms implement many programs to
prevent consumers to experience dissonance. For relatively inexpensive items,
companies may provide a money back warranty or they may inspire their salesman
to compliment their customers for their choices. For bigger items, companies
try to appear as much helpful as possible, e.g., quality guaranteed program,
guideline booklets, a toll-free hotline to call when you encounter problems or
a forum with several admins who are ready to answer all of customer’s questions.
Companies facilitate themselves in
satisfying customers by purposely lowering customer’s expectations. Service
firms such as restaurants often apply this technique. Consumers are more
satisfied if they are told that their table will be ready in 30 minutes, but
they are seat in 15 minutes. Likewise, if the waitress tells consumers that their
meal will be finished in 20 minutes, yet consumers have to wait for 10 minutes,
they will perceive that the service is quick and satisfied with it.
Stage 6. Disposal of the Product
Previously, nobody paid attention to
the disposing process of products, so long as people purchased them. Nowadays,
it is changed. The way products are disposed has become extremely vital to
people and the community. Products which are hard to self-destruct such as
electrical devices (computers and batteries) have been concerned most because
their chemicals damage the ground. Consumers and firms have become aware of
this problematic situation. Take Crystal Light, a special kind of beverage that
needs water to be drinkable. Apart from the usual form “liquid stored in the
bottle”, Crystal Light offers consumers the concentrated form that consumers
manually add water. Hence, consumers no longer need to purchase and discard of
the plastic bottle. Windex is another example of this practice. Consumers can
buy the concentrate and add water whenever they are run out of window cleaner.
Or in some supermarket such as Mega Market that now sells shopping bags that
can self-destruct rather than using and dispose of plastic bags.
Companies with sales
revenue depends on the durability of their products. In other words, if their
products are too good, consumers will rarely replace them with newer versions.
Therefore, these companies are more concerned about planned obsolescence
instead of conservation. Planned obsolescence is a policy of manufacturing
consumer goods that quickly become obsolete and need to be replaced. This can
be achieved by constant updates in design, termination of the supply of spare
parts, and/or the use of non-durable materials. This can be seen as a strategic
goal of the company to boost sales by encouraging consumers to upgrade their
products. Constant innovation in design or functions, and release of new items
keep themselves attractive in the eyes of consumers, and remind the marketplace
about their existence. Take Google, the release of Google Pixel smartphone is
the dead announcement for Google Nexus generation. The approximate length of support or the end-of-life
(EOL) dates were set for all of Nexus devices. Google released new update of
Android e.g., version 7.0 Nougat and version 8.0 Oreo while Nexus devices are
allowed to update to version 6.0 Marshmallow, this will lead to the
incompatibility with the older software versions. Another obvious example of
planned obsolescence is Microsoft Office. Formatting functions in MS 2010 are
different from that of MS forced to upgrade the present software version