DESIGN need of it. This project proposalDESIGN need of it. This project proposal



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NUMBER: BS205/0061/14










This Project Proposal is my original work and has
not been presented for a degree in any other University.



JEREVASIO NYAGA IRERI                                                             BS205/0061/14

This Project Proposal has been submitted for
examination with my approval as a University Supervisor.

…………………..                                                                                 ………………………


















Portal management systems for secondary schools has
not been a common tendency in today’s learning curriculum system. With
advancements of technology, everything has become easier due to fastening of
internet speed which is available at any place any time you are I need of it.
This project proposal paper presents the design and implementation of  portal system for Rural Integrated Secondary
School which is located in less-developed area. The system represents the
typical education system as a computerized system in a way to allow Students,
Parents, Teachers and the School Director to communicate with each other in a
fast and direct way. The system has a system administrative with some
administrative privileges that can add/remove users and assign the account type
with privileges. The developed system has mobile-based software which allows
the user a large amount of freedom to access the system and make it accessible
users according to the username and password. The WAMP Server and MySQL Server
have been used to build the system. The system can be used by Students, Parents,
Teachers and the School Director. The system aims to provide extensive
functions for the administration of school and the management of student data. The
difference between the developed system and others has no accounts of their
Students to access the system.




I would like to take this opportunity to thank my
Almighty GOD for giving me life and good health, express my gratitude to all
those have helped and supported me during study of my Degree Course program in
Bachelor of Business Information Technology. First of all, I would like to
express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor MR ELI KANGARU for his generous
guidance and patience to me during the period of my project proposal writing.
His inspiring advice is extremely essential and valuable in my project proposal
writing. I feel very lucky and deeply appreciate him for giving me the
opportunity of being his student.

I would like also to show my sincere gratitude to
all my lecturers as well as Faculty members in the Department of Information
Technology and Computer Science for being my friends, my supporters during the
time I was studying. I am much grateful to my dear friends for their support
not only on my study in the school but also on my daily life. And most
importantly my special thanks goes to my parents who are there for me with
countless warming loving and care, who have been giving me the greatest support
and encouragement so that I can keep concentrating on my-4-year study period.


Research Background. 4
1.1.3 CONCEPTUAL.. 4



This is made up of Historical, Theoretical,
Conceptual and Contextual.


A School is an institution designed to provide
learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of the students or
pupils under the direction of teachers. Rural Integrated Secondary School is
made up of various Stakeholders. It is made up of Parents, Students, Teachers,
Administrators, Director and the surrounding Society. Rural Integrated
Secondary School is located in a dry environment in Mbeere-South Sub-County,
Embu County along main Embu-Mbeere Highway. Rural Integrated Secondary School
does not have a Management System Portal and so it is impossible to acquire
general information at a distanced area, only can acquire the required
information at School. Rural Integrated Secondary School has got many different
tasks carried out within the School, namely: Registration for the term by
students, Acquirement of the fee balances by students and parents, Count down of
term dates, Annual General Meetings, Board of Management Meetings, Academic
Clinic Meetings, Acquirement of Assignments for students, Acquirements of
students examination results, Job and Tenders vacancies announcements,
Acquirements of term opening, mid-term and closing dates and examination dates
for openers, mid-term and closing of the term.

Rural Integrated Secondary School is tasked with the
responsibility of providing efficient educational services for the Students.
Recently it relied on face-face and written-based -records which is time
consuming and not confidential. This system is characterized by a growing need
for efficient maintenance to ensure stakeholders records and other data are
secure to avoid losses. In order to acquire some information from Rural
Integrated Secondary School the School Members have to visit the school e.g.
the School Director or the School Accountant if the matter is concerning about
the financial matters. This leads to wastage of time to and from and also
wastage of financial resources in terms of transport expenses. The students may
forge the end term results in case he/she has not met the targeted goals, the
meetings may be postponed and the parents and other School Members may fail to
know, the tender may be posted and the tenders may fail to know, thus the
School Management needs a reliable information system.



This is made up of Implementation and Information
Technology Solution. IMPLEMENTATION

Today, websites are the best way to publicize and
disseminate information to the utmost number of individual in the world. The
internet is a technology for organizations providing means to communicate with
the public. It also has the only one characteristic without geographical
boundary or time limit, everyone interacts through one-to-many networks meeting
matches to do business and provide or request services they want.

Web browsers such as Firefox and Internet Explorer
are the means to deliver information on a webpage, the basic foundation of a
website which has the basic structure (architecture) written in web program.
Nowadays information age, the majorities of organizations have a website with
their policy and their artifact and service information. It is perhaps the
mainly economic and the most suitable way to disseminate information and data
all over the world. Due to advancing strides and rapid changes, computer trends
had surfaced. It becomes a vital fixture in school in which the mental
capabilities of students are being tested and their creative skills are
developed using their modern technology which include the creation of web




Over the years the term ‘web design and development’
has become a catchall for the process that encompasses a number of different disciplines,
from user experience design, to document mark up, to serious programming. There
is a major difference between ‘web design’ and just designing a nice website
and web development. A website essentially has two sides to it. The design side
that creates the look and feel of the site based on what you, the site owner
would like to communicate to your clients. The other side is on functionality and
what it is website design. Designing of a website plays an important role.
Well-designed website can attract huge visitors and helps you to beat your
competitors. Web design is the skill of creating presentations of content
(usually hypertext or hypermedia) that is delivered to end user through the
Word Wide Web, by way of Web browser or other Web-enabled software.




Web development is developing the business identity
on the web. It is creating a synergetic effect between both facets of your
business-online and offline. It is using the successful combination of graphic
design, copywriting, programming, usability, human computer interaction and
online marketing skills to develop and execute a successful project on the web.
A successful web development company will find the balance and make it all
work. To ensure that the developed website has been in line with the
requirements of the users, I gathered valuable inputs from the School
Management through in-depth interviews which I analyzed for web development. I
will also ask the School Management to use the system and to provide feedbacks
to me after using it. The results as well as the observations from their first
use of the prototype, I will use them to implement further enhancements of the
website. With all the aspirations and hopes, I have decided to design and
develop the Rural Integrated Secondary School website that could help the
School to advertise its curricular services.





ü  Slow-The
existing system basically manual making it difficult to retrieve back
information about the school when required. For example the student may want to
see their marks of materials, school schedule or homework. At this situation
the student should be capable of getting the required information about the
school at any time, any place when required.

ü  Storage-The
manual work done during writing of student’s term academic performance report
forms by class teachers, writing student’s homework and other written records  leads to a lot of paper work which tends to
be too bulky to store. This means that there will be a need for an extra bigger
vacant room to store them which is a wastage of school resources. With use of
Rural Integrated Secondary School Portal system, all this paper work will be
reduced thus leading to reduction of wastage of school resources.

ü  Time
consuming-The school management is not able to get the required school
information at the time when in need of it without visiting the school
face-face because the school does not have a portal system hence they waste a
lot of time. Now with this Rural Integrated Secondary  School Portal system the school management
can access any required information at any time and any place when in need of



This is made up of main objective and specific


ü  To
develop a web-based portal system that will support teaching and learning
functions by managing resources and processes more efficiently and effectively.


ü  To
enhance Management of School day-to-day activities.

ü  To
enhance Registration of Students.

ü  To
keep updates to the School Management.



ü  There
is a direct relationship between the proposed Rural Integrated Secondary School
Web Portal Management System and the School Academic activities.

ü  There
is a direct relationship between the proposed Rural Integrated Secondary School
Web Portal Management System and the School Management Staff.






On successful
implementation of this Secondary School Portal system, all its objectives for
which it was undertaken should be met. The Rural Integrated Secondary School
Portal System can also be used by other Secondary Schools to enhance management
of the School day-to-day activities.



1.6.0 SCOPE

The scope of this
document is to outline all procedures, techniques and tools to be used for
Design and Development of Rural Integrated Secondary School Portal Management
System. This project is meant to come up with Rural Integrated Secondary School
System Management Portal. The scope of this project is to cover the Design and
Implementation of Rural Integrated Secondary School System Management Portal. In
this project, the main activities of Rural Integrated Secondary School will be
performed by the System Portal, but maximum care has been taken to make the Portal
System well organized and more user-friendly.
















The Rural Integrated Secondary School Portal has
brought many unique benefits to marketing of education in the rural areas
including reduction in costs in distributing information to a global audience.
The internet is a collection of various services and resources. It connects
millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any
computer can communicate with any other as long as they are both connected to
the internet. Research focuses to concentrate on many distributed
object-component technologies and web frameworks for web-based applications
especially in e-commerce, e-business and the other similar areas within
web-based enterprises.




Web services are applications provided by service
servers. The use of web services implies the use of simple protocols that are
easy to implement in comparison with other methods. The database driven
application with PHP programming language and MySQL database management are
appropriate tools for developing web-based teaching support system. The web based
teaching support system successfully implemented features of security, user
friendliness, inter-operability, reliability and scalability as evaluated by
school staff members and students. Web operation goal is to improve the
satisfaction of site visitors to make the trust and identity website they can
obtain on a website.

During recent years navigation using web pages have
gained a considerable importance not only among the academia but also amongst
students, parents, industries and businesses, but the pioneers of the web were
researchers and university lectures. Today, web is not only an information
resource but also it is becoming an automated tool in various applications. Due
to the increasing popularity of web, one can be very cautious in designing the
website. Poor and careless web design leads to hard ship to public utility and
not serve the purpose. Semantic web creates an artificial intelligence
application which will make wed content meaningful to computers, thereby
unleashing a revolution of new abilities and it intends to support
machine-processing capabilities that will automate web application and

Bhatia and Singh (2012) found that one of the
foremost causes of using design patterns is essentially parallel to those for
using any object oriented techniques. Design patterns prop up reuse, without
constraining implementations to a specific platform or language and promote efficient
use of design time. Alexander (2004) found that if universities want to
successfully market their courses online, their websites must be designed to
meet the needs of prospective students. The project study of Robles aimed to
create an online learning facility for Saint Bridget College. The design of
asynchronous environment was used as a tool to create interactive content for
use in their courses. The proponent used web programming tools such as PHP
general scripting language Macromedia Dreamweaver.




Casuga (2012) covered the development of web-based
clearance system which is deemed to improve the process of securing clearance
particularly in the redundant procedural functions of submitting semestral
requirements, queuing at each office at every end of the semester and inquiries
of the submitted and not yet submitted requirements. The study conducted by
Raquedan (2007) where several schools and universities with best IT programs as
determined by the Philippine Commission of Higher Education were reviewed using
Heuristic evaluation method with the guidelines based on the latest edition of
the research based web design an0d usability guidelines. Design and development
of Rural Integrated Secondary School Website is somehow related to the study
conducted by Baesa (2011) which aimed to develop and evaluate a web portal for
the Department of Education Division of Batangas (2011). This web portal
facilitated the dissemination of information to improve the process of
interaction among Division office and the field offices.

Johnson, Visser and Weideman (2011) agreed that too
much text is ‘bad writing’ and is something that frequently occurs on websites.
Nielson and Loranger (2010) interpreted content from a slightly different
perspective and estimates that visitors often view a webpage for 45-60 seconds.
The same authors estimate that a visitor could read a maximum of 200 words
during that period time. This indicates that the amount of text placed on a
webpage is only important and considered from a visitor’s perspective and not
from a search engine’s perspective. The content of university websites often
fails to deliver necessary information. The main reason for that is that the
content does not appear to be written for its target audience. The issue at the
heart of web accessibility is that many sites are not designed with equal
access in mind. In other words, lack of web accessibility is more a result of
faulty design rather inadequate technologies.

Brown et al (2010), suggested that to achieve the
accessibility, web site need to be equitable use, flexibility, simple and
intuitive use, perceptible information, sensory abilities, tolerance for error
and low physical effort. The current web architecture often faces performance
and reliability problems. Scalability, latency, bandwidth and disconnected
operations are some of the important issues that should be considered when
attempting to adjust for growth in web usage. In terms of functionality, one of
the most important characteristics of a software application is its ability to
share data, information and processing services. Despite the growing comfort
and familiarity with the web both as a medium to which to publish to as well as
a conduit for and as a tool for the management of information maintained in
other environments, there is still a tendency to confuse one function with the
other. In order to achieve high performance as well as interoperability, it is
proposed that using highbred architecture of web services (as non-proprietary
and platform-independent technology) can solve the mentioned issue.

Once a software product has been purchased for use
within an office or home environment, the product must sustain its usefulness,
over and above its actual purpose by means of usability. Johnson (2008)
associates the development of civilized societies with website usability and
usefulness in mind as primary objective. Web usability attributes focus
primarily on what makes the website visitor respond.




The Rural Integrated Secondary School portal will be
beneficially designed and developed for the School Management using PHP,
Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) and MySQL. The portal will obtain a very high
assessment rating in terms of content and usability while high assessment
rating will be achieved in terms of efficiency and functionality. The School
Management Staff will have significantly higher assessment towards the Rural
Integrated Secondary School Portal in terms of content and functionality. The
proposed enhancement is focused on adding more substantial and informative
content; accessing faster website; providing more buttons and links and
managing easily the student portal.

It is recommended that the Rural Integrated
Secondary School website will be maintained by the Administrator from the
Management Information System (MIS) Department and updated regularly and the
content will be updated regularly with the latest news and announcements
regarding academic and other events. In order to achieve the maximum efficiency
of the website, the Webmaster will opt to optimize images with appropriate file
size and refrain from using too many flash files. Teachers will encourage the
students to utilize the Portal for Educational purposes and intellectual
discussions of School activities. The proposed enhancement will be implemented
to improve the way that the Administration disseminates information and
services to the School Management.





ü Alexander,
D. (2004) How usable are university websites? A report on a study of the prospective
student experience.

ü Bhatia,
S. & Singh, H., (2012). Analyzing and Improving Web Application Quality
Using Design Patterns. International Journal of Computers & Technology,
2(2): 112-116.

ü Baesa,
R. G (2011). Development and Evaluation of Web Portal for the Department of
Education Division of  Batangas,
Unpublished Thesis, Batangas State University.

ü Johnson,
J (2008). Web Usability in 2008: Mediocre viewed 01 May 2010.

ü Visser,
E.B. & Weideman, M.,(2011). An empirical study on website usability
elements and how they affect search engine optimization, SA Journal of
Information Management 13(1).