Diabetes Ye et al studied the same

Diabetes mellitus is a noteworthy overall general medical issue including
Saudi Arabia. It has been accounted for by the World Health Organization (WHO)
that Saudi Arabia has the second most noteworthy rate of diabetes in the Middle
East and the seventh in the world2.  It is likely that both hereditary and
environmental factors assume important role in the disease pathogenesis26.
Different research groups have studied a number of candidate genes that may
induce the vulnerability to T2DM in various populations. However, generally/
relatively fewer studies have been conducted in Saudi Arabia to study the
relationship between VDR gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to T2DM.  VDR
gene mediates transcription function, and the interaction with its
ligand (vitamin D) is known to influence insulin secretion and insulin function34.
 We have investigated VDR FokI and
BsmI gene polymorphisms in a group of Saudi people with T2DM, and
matched control subjects for gender and age in Makkah (aka: Mecca) area in
western Saudi Arabia.


No significant difference was seen in the genotype distribution and
allele frequencies of both SNPs in FokI and BsmI polymorphisms in
VDR gene between the control and the patients with T2DM.  A critical factor for consideration in our
results on VDR polymorphisms is that, this research has been made in Makkah environs
of Saudi Arabia, an area that is known to have two seasonal variations, hot and
extremely hot (Table 3).  The available
sunshine throughout the year is fairly high and thus Makkah locale can be
considered an exceptional reference district for the possible bio-accessibility
of vitamin D throughout the year, unlike many European, North American and even
areas in Asian countries that are situated in the northern hemisphere such as
Hokkaido region of Japan.

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Several researchers have studied the relationship of VDR
polymorphism in various populations. In Polish subjects, Malecki et al have
examined the polymorphism of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR
gene (BsmI, TaqI, FokI and ApaI) and they found
that the genotype and allele distribution is the same in both controls and T2DM35.
 Additionally, in French Caucasian
population, Ye et al studied the same SNPs of VDR gene (BsmI, TaqI,
FokI and ApaI) and they observed that both the genotype and
allele distribution is the same in both controls and T2DM in36.   Besides,/
/Furthermore, in Turkish population, Dilmec et al found no significant
difference in genotype and allele frequencies of the same four SNPs (BsmI,
TaqI, FokI and ApaI) of the VDR gene between both controls
and T2DM37. Among European Caucasians, Bertoccini
 et al studied the
association between VDR FokI polymorphism and T2DM and found no difference of
the genotype distributions and allele frequencies between T2DM subjects
and controls in Italians38.  Additionally,
in Chinese Han subjects, Fei Yu et al studied four VDR SNPs and found
that VDR FokI and BsmI polymorphism is not related to T2DM risk
in Chinese39. In the African continent, for Tunisian subjects, no
significant relationship between VDR FokI polymorphism and T2DM was
observed, Mahjoubi et al 40. Accordingly, all of the above previously
reported observations agree and bolster our results that the reported
polymorphisms of VDR gene have no bearing on the diabetes susceptibility.

Strikingly, an incredible inverse results were obtained by
different investigators examining VDR variants and diabetes in different
geographical and environmental regions.  For
instance, in North Indians (Kashmiri population), Malik et al reported
VDR TaqI and BsmI polymorphism and they likewise/also
found that BsmI G allele is associated with T2DM risk41. Likewise/
Similarly in United Arab Emirates, Safar et al found that the G allele
and GG genotype of FokI and T allele and TT genotype of BsmI are
associated with T2DM risk in Emirati population42.  Among the Chinese Han subjects

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