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Do you believe humans are like a

To the planet

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Supervised By:

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 Date: 16/1/2018

Prepared By:

Zainab Nazar

Software department
1st stage


INTRODUCTION. Section 1. 3
POPULATION. Section 2. 4
Types of pollution: 6
Pollution. 6
The emission of concern is: 7
The respiratory system.. 9
Effect of Carbon Monoxide (CO) 10
GLOBAL WARMING. Section 4. 10
Impact of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere: 11
THE OZONE LAYER. Section 5. 12
Effects of Ozone depletion on Humans: 13
Effects of Ozone depletion on Environment 14
ACID RAIN. Section 6. 15
References. 20





We live in a modern
world where tremendous advances have been made in technology, medicine and many
other areas. These are positive aspects, but the whole thing involves some
negative sides. How many times have you considered what needs to happen to our environment,
so we can maintain that lifestyle?

Humans are the
being who completely upsets the balance of nature and put themselves above the
actual cycle. The human considers himself as the crown of creation, but
actually,  he is only a small mosaic
piece of the biosphere. That is why we say the man destroys himself. This
refers to the consequences of his consumption such as lack of water, destroyed
habitats and disappearing species. But no matter how often these issues are addressed,
they are far too abstract to shake up and improve, right?

The earth is
polluted by the population, more and more trees are felled, houses are built,
and our planet is threatened by the global warming. Besides the earth are also
humans and animals in danger because of many points. Some of them can be
changed by us and some of them no. Let me explain you why what we are doing is
wrong and what we are doing with the earth to make our standard of living




The term population has its origin
from the Latin word populous, meaning people. The human population is the total
number of living humans on earth.

Our global human population, 7.6 billion in 2017 and it keeps growing,
overpopulation is when a population group passes the point at which the

Environment can no longer supply the resources required to support the group’s
needs. Human population increases continuously since the 20th
century, it’s the most forceful environmental issues that causes

biodiversity, waste management, global warming, pollution, intensive
farming technics, habitat loss and most importantly the loss of fresh water
because over 75 % of earth is covered in water, 97.5 % are oceans which is
salty also 2.5 % is freshwater which is divided into icefall and ice caps and
30% remaining is distributed between rivers and wetland, most of the freshwater
is unapproachable or too impure. According to a report in 2009 U.N. group states that “by 2030, nearly half of the worlds people will be
living in areas of intense water shortage” the planet is in the middle of called by the U.N. “Global water Crises”.
Freshwater is the most important limited resource that cannot sate everyone’s
need for it. Freshwater ecosystems are limited it covers about 1% of earth’s
surface and they are already in danger because of pollution and other threats. But
surely, we can´t expect from the human being to stop with building their own
family. Beside these facts, we should consider that it is the nature of human
to procreate.




Pollution is an unwanted change caused in air, water and soils by humans
and human activities.

It is defined as the contamination of air, water and food in such manner
as to cause real or potential harm to human health or well-being or to damage
the non-human nature. It can be the cause of diseases, allergies or even death
of humans.

The more people there are, the more resources they use, and the more
pollution that results. There are visible or invisible types of pollution that
contribute to the global warming.


of pollution:


·       Air pollution

·       Soil pollution

·       Water pollution

·       Noise pollution

·       Radiation pollution

·       Thermal pollution










·       Energy to heat and cool our homes
and buildings and to run cars and equipment.


·       Waste takes on many forms from
sewage to trash, some waste is spewed into the atmosphere or into water ways
and so the result is air and water pollution, air pollution is due to increased
fossil fuel emissions from vehicles.


·       Fossil fuels for automobiles
require all humans to develop alternative forms of transportation (trucks, buses,
aircraft and personal car)


·       Burning coal for electricity will
continue to increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.


·       Power plant (factories)


·       Soil erosion includes using
pesticides and fertilizer, altering ecosystems in negative ways, we are losing
soil by building, farming and stripping forests therefore soil is becoming
depleted and desertification is occurred.


major source of air pollution comes from non-stoichiometric combustion,
dissociation of Nitrogen oxides (NO) and impurities in the fuel of air.





The emission of concern is:


1.   Carbon monoxide (CO): is a product
of in complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel (CnHn). Most of CO comes from the
exhaust of vehicles.


2.   Hydro carbon (HC): comes from
exhaust gases, it is different for each gasoline depending on the original
fuel, it may reach the atmosphere to form photochemical smog which causes
odorant and irritants.


3.    Oxides of Nitrogen (NO): exhaust gases contain
NO in most of its constituent and trace amount of NO2 and other nitrogen-oxygen
NO2 is a very undesirable emission, especially released of NO react with
atmosphere to form Ozone (O3), and it’s one of the major causes of
photochemical smog.


4.   Photo chemical smog: is one of the
primary causes of photochemical reaction of automobile exhaust and atmosphere
air in the presence of sunlight and it produces Ozone and its harmful for
humans and vegetable plants.


5.   Sulfur oxides (SO): many fuel used
in engine contain sulfur in its exhaust which contribute in acid rain


6.   Lead and phosphorous: lead was a
major gasoline additive (tetraethyl lead) was effectively used to increase the
gasoline, octane number which allowed more efficient engine. However, the
resulting lead engine exhaust was highly poisonous pollutant, also small amount
of phosphorous are emitted, these comes from impurities in the air and also in


7.   Solids particles: (particulates)
small solid particulates are present in air in a great number, and at times it
constitutes a serious pollution problem, particulates are sometimes classified
as viable (capable of living), or non-viable. Examples of viable like bacteria
and spores. Non-viable like substances as organic compounds, dust and sea salt.



·       Many particulates affect
respiratory system more effectively than air pollutant


·       Particulates increase atmospheric
turbidity and reduce visibility


with using all those resources and so on, more pollution results.


respiratory system

The major target of air pollutants
is the respiratory system. Air and entrained pollutants enter the body
through the throat and nasal cavities and pass to the lungs through the trachea
and bronchia.

Entrained pollutant particles can
be prevented from entering the lung by the action of ting hairs called (cilia)
that sweep mucus out through the throat and nose.

The bronchial cilia can be
paralyzed by inhaled smoke enhancing the synergistic effect between smoking and
air pollution. And in the lungs, the air moves through bronchial tubes to the
alveoli (small air sack) in which oxygen from the lungs is transferred to the

of Carbon Monoxide (CO)

The effect of CO inhalation on
human health is directly proportional to the quantity of CO bound to
hemoglobin. Oxygen is transported in the blood as oxyhemoglobin (HBO2), in the
red blood cells. The O2 is removed for cell respiration and the regenerated
hemoglobin is available for more oxygen transport. CO reduces the
oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood by combining with hemoglobin and forming
carboxyhemoglobin (HBCO). Hemoglobin that is tied up as (HBCO) can be
regenerated and is not available for oxygen transport for the life of that
particular red blood cell. In this way (CO) effectively poisons the hemoglobin oxygen
transport system, and so effects the human health.


Now after all these facts we
should ask ourselves what can be done? We can work on reducing the levels of
sulfur dioxide, smog and more to improve our health.




Our planet is heating up. In the history of the earth this happened
already a several times. But never at the pace of the past 200 years. The worst
thing is, it is the fault of the human-being. Average increase in the
temperature of the atmosphere, which can contribute to changes in global
climate patterns, it can be defined as changes in the global environment
(including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water
resources, atmospheric chemistry and ecological systems) that may alter the
capacity of the earth to sustain life. Global warming decreases the
productivity it will cost a lot to the humans. Experts give a warning that
climate change and economic productivity will decrease the amounts, it will
affect the human health and even they will face the death. When the human body
faces a lot of heat it will lose the body’s water and with the decrease of
blood pressure. The normal human temperature is 37 Celsius and the heat is up
to 39.5 Celsius it will be too dangerous for humans and other living, nowadays
we all use air conditioner and even sometimes it can’t cool the air for us, Brian
Kohler the director of health, safety and sustainably says that “as the
produce of air conditioner increases it is also increases the use of energy and
the electric fossil energy and so the atmosphere will be warmer” and also added
that it is not a solution, actually it brings more problems.

Impact of increasing CO2 levels in
the atmosphere:


·       Increased photosynthesis and
productivity by the earth’s vegetation.


·       Decrease plant production also
means decreased respiration.


·       Elevated CO2 means an increase in
global temperature – the greenhouse effect


·       Increased average surface
temperature of the earth by about 0.6degree + 0.2degree C.


·       This increase in earths average
temperature is called Global warming


·       A warmer earth may lead to changes
in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level and a wide range of impacts on
plants, wildlife and humans.





The atmosphere contains five layers: exosphere,
thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere, the troposphere is the
first layer above the surface that contains half of the Earth’s atmosphere and
the weather falls out in this layer and also the Ozone layer is a thin, fragile
shield that contains relatively high concentration of Ozone (O3). It shields
the entire earth in the top layer of the stratosphere from much of the harmful
UV radiation that comes from the sun, it’s located between 12km to 50km above
the earth, It prevents  99% of the suns
ultraviolent light. Damage in the Ozone layer means harmful rays entering to
the atmosphere which effects on the livings and non-livings. In the 1970s, the
scientists discovered that the ozone layer is being depleted usually because of refrigerator, freezer, cars
and the gases CFCS (chlorofluorocarbon) which comes out of the sprays. And all
of this causes the increase of heat so the ice melts and vegetation changes.
And the Ozone hole appeared which refers to the depletion of the preventive of
the Ozone layer in the stratosphere.


Effects of Ozone depletion on Humans:


effect of ozone depletion is the increased UV-B radiation reaching earth

on humans:

1.   Sunburn

2.   Sun-damaged skin

3.   Cataracts

4.   Snow blindness

5.   Skin cancer








Effects of Ozone depletion on Environment


on environment:

1.    Global warming

2.    Climate change

3.    Crop and forest damage

4.    Infections and skin diseases on animals



1.   Less ocean plankton

2.   Less fish harvests





ACID RAIN. Section 6


rain is the rain that is more acidic than normal, the normal rains pH is 5.6
and under this pH it will be acid rain, due to fossil fuels it appears,
commonly in those places where industrial activities and energy consumptions
happening, acid rain releases toxic metals into forests that stunts the growth of
trees, acid rains spread, and damage involves weather, chemistry, soil and the
life cycles of plants and animals on the land and from acid in the water it
kills the animals and also effects the human health.

·      Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen
oxides (NO), are the main sources of acid rain.







Acid rain is quietly destroying our planet.


·      Acid rain causes expansive damage
to buildings, statues, bridges and structural materials of marble, stone etc…




·       Acid rain causes death of the




·       On animals that lives in water




·      Acid rain effects on human health


The sulfur dioxide
(SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) gases,

Causes respiratory diseases
like (asthma, chronic, bronchiectasis etc…)




     Tiny particles cause difficulty in
breathing for humans and animals & also lead to permanent lung damage






term “environment” means total surroundings of an organism, it can be
living and non-living things.

quality of human life directly related to the quality of environment.

Human activities
on environment including:

Deforestation means removing a large scale of forest, or an area of trees in order to
clear the area for human development. The trees are called lungs of the earth
it makes all the livings to continue their breathing and removing them simply
means killing ourselves by our actions.

Also, industrialization
have impact on our planet:

·       Dangerous chemicals entering
underground water

·       Ecological imbalance

·       Release of pollutant gases

·       Release of radioactive rays
causing health problems

·       Reduced vegetation





In this article, we talked about human impact on
earth and the negativity of their activities on the environment which leads
humans, animals and other living things to death and it’s all because of their
activities which they think that will make their lives easier which is not, it
leads all of them to death, so humans are actually like viruses to the earth
trying to live peacefully and to reach this peaceful planet they are harming
the planet. We kill trees to make papers and other things to use in our daily
life and we don’t realize that killing them means killing ourselves by catching
up with diseases, inhaling dusty air and drinking polluted water. There are
many ways to reduce the percentage of harm to our planet.



“There is enough in the world for everyone’s need,
but not enough for everyone’s greed”

–       Mahatma Gandhi








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