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Early Influences (p.378 – p.390)American design is a result of three different things: Influence, Development and Change Every form of design, no matter what, has had some form of influence from one of the 4 major eras of design. These eras being: Classical Greece, Imperial Rome, The Middle Ages and the Italian Renaissance. Whether they’d like to think or not.The Parthenon was constructed in the 5th Century B.C. in the capital of Greece, Athens.Even though this beautiful structure has endured some disfigurement, it still has yet to lose those that seek inspiration from its structural beauty. A majority of the Greek Parthenon was constructed with solid marble.During the time of construction, no bonding agent was needed.The Roof’s truss was made up of Wood and Terracotta Tiles.Designed by the architects, Ictinus and CallicratesWith the structures beautiful combination of horizontal lines, placement of the different shapes and the placing of the columns, one can see that there is an optical illusion that appears as if the structure is visually perfect.  They also received help from the sculptor, Phidias. To which most of the sculptures were taking back to England by an English Collector, Lord ElginAll columns have a very distinctive artistic piece, to which define from which era of design the building was derived from.The Parthenon has many design aspects including a cornice, a colonnade frieze and several other design aspects. There are three main Greeks ordersDoric, Ionic, and CorinthianDoric: The oldest and simplest. This style has a square plate like form on the top and below the plate there is a circle like form as wellIonic: The most recent of the orders. This style is one of the most complex of designs. This style consists of two forward facing scrolls, a form of eggs and darts below that and below that there is a flower like form design. This style of columns is thinner than the doric styleCorinthiansUsed more by the Roman Order rather than the Greek OrderOne of the more complex designs Consists of a bell shaped body for the top of the column Rows of leaves around the bell shaped bodyThe top of the bell shaped body this is a squareEven though the Romans had annexed Greece, Greece still had superiority when it came to design.Although the Romans designs were stunning, they lacked functionality, whereas the Greeks designs had functionality.As the Roman empire expanded, so did the building of Roman buildings.With that, the Romans had adapted the Greeks style and techniques into their buildings, while still bringing their own style and technique.With them building their empire and bringing in their own styles, they had created a couple of design aspects that eventually lead to the dome.The Romans used many types of stone/material to construct their buildings.The Roman building do include the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles as well as their own, Tuscan and Composite.The Roman Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles are very similar to the Greek Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian stylesThe Roman temple was different in two main ways.It was built on a raised podium, whereas the Greeks built their Temple was on a stylobateThey made their temple so that the only way to enter was from the frontThey also had expanded the space within the temple, to maximize the space.Classical and classicism are terms to which refer to the use of Roman and Greek forms, motifs and proportions Throughout history color has played a huge part into climate, politics, trade or exposure with other societies and social ambience.ColorsGreece:One of the bigger colors during this time was blueOther colors during this time for accenting other colors were: yellow, pink, pale blue, Roman:Magenta/Imperial Purple, Vivid Gold, Pompeian red, Roman Greens and slight accents of blacks.Throughout this time Christianity started to get accepted in Rome. With that the construction of churches started to spread across the empire.During this time the churches were up kept very well, because the church provide everything to the people. In return they expected to get paid by the people for their services.  Later during this time, the terms, Romanesque and Norman came about. Now because of the romanesque style, the Gothic style came to be.It is said that the during the renaissance, there was a group of people that corrected the gothic style to bring it back to the original greek and roman classicismGothic designs included very tall ceiling and high pointed archesIn gothic churches there are many aspects, but there are 2 main points of interest, the nave which is main area of the church, or the bigger body of the church. The other main part is the Arcade, to which these arcades run on the sides of the church to create what we would call in modern day a hallway or pathway. Now usually below these churches there are crypts or burial grounds.These were commonly used to bury people of higher social class There also was a place for the Organ and seats for the people of the Choir, called the Choir. Within these churches there are areas called bays, these bays have objects that are called tall piers or columns, to which hold the weight of the church. In these churches, there is a viewing area, the triforium.In these churches you can see many areas with stained glassThese churches sometimes have braces called Flying Buttresses, which help support the other braces called the ButtressesEvery country had created their own way to defer where the church was, so churches  in England had different subtleties than Churches in France. Houses during the middle ages were very simplistic.There were stone, brick and timber. The inside  of timber homes, often consisted of wattle (twigs woven together) and then covered in daub or what would be similar to plaster in today’s world. For brickhouses, instead of wattle, they used nogs (blocks of wood.)Roofs during this times were made with bundles of reeds or thinly cut pieces of stone.These homes in the United Kingdom were most commonly referred to as Tudor as the time these homes were built, the Tudor Kings and Queens were in control of the throne.The colors during the Medieval time, were not as prominent as colors were in other eras. Some would call the colors of this time, dark and dingy; as this time itself was a dark and dingy time in history.Eastern cultural influences have been influencing design ever since the late 11th century, or what we would call the Crusades war. More specifically in the area of textiles, rugs and other products that were created by the peoples of the eastern cultures. During this time there was an expression, “The Orient” to which this expression referred to the peoples of the eastern cultures; which included China, India, the Caucasus Mountains. (Which is in Southern Russia between the Black and Caspian Seas.) Oriental goods were very prominent in people’s wishes, as everyone wanted something from the far east. Some of the goods that people wanted most of included: Fine Chinese Porcelain, Lacquer, Coromandel Screens, Chests, Chinese rugs and Chinese furniture.  Chinese motifs, fretwork and details are often design into westen works of design.The French are said to have designed a style called the Chinoiserie, which was also known as a fanciful design. Chinese designs have been known to date back to 3000 B.C. Silk was originally was produced in China, then spread to Italy and then the rest of Europe in the beginning of the 17th century.Throughout the 19th century Islamic design was incorporated into western design. Most famously is the Horseshoe arch and the Onion dome. Rugs from Islamic cultures have also been prized since the Crusades in the 11th century. The Term “Asian” wasn’t used until later in time, closer to the 21st century than anything.In the Renaissance time, color was starting to become a huge fad, if you will. People had more freedom when it came to color, the artists weren’t confined to only religious symbols and religious colors. Baroque Period is known as the end of the renaissance periodThis style/period incorporates calums, pediments. Pilasters, rounded arches, domes and entablatures.This styles is however more exaggerated with ornamentation This period was known as the theatrical period. They used a lot of dramatic shadows and lights.The ceilings were painted in a more realistic fashionThe interior spaces were rounded without corners  Materials often used during this period included: rich marble, gilded metals, ornately painted plasterThroughout this time, this style spread from Italy to all corners of EuropeThe Louvre found this style too outlandish where as the King found it suitable for the Château de Versailles.This style eventually made its way to the Americas.