Enzymes smaller players. Approximately 60% of enzymesEnzymes smaller players. Approximately 60% of enzymes

Enzymes are biocatalysts of tertiary or quaternary globular protein structure and are formed by long chains of amino acids with peptide bonds. They may react under moderate conditions of temperature and pH, and are present in microorganisms, animals and plants.Actually enzymes are applied in different areas: medical, food, textile, chemical, pulp and paper, to name a few. Almost 4000 enzymes are currently known and from these approximately 200 are used commercially, most of them of microbial origin. The worldwide demand for enzymes is met by twelve key producers and by 400 smaller players. Approximately 60% of enzymes are produced in Europe. Enzymatic synthesis in industrial scale is difficult to achieve due to the low operational life of biocatalysts and due to the negative effects of excess substrate and product over the catalytic activity. The presence of enzymes in food is very common, with oxidoreductases and hydrolases being the most important ones. In the oxidoreductase group, the enzymes that are of interest for the food industry are phenolates, peroxidases, catalases, peroxidases and lipoxygenases. The use of enzymes in food processing is one of the greatest impacts of biotechnology on the sector. .Hydrolases and oxidoreductases are the most popular enzyme groups in the food industry and are involved in new product development and in the development and enhancing of organoleptic characteristics (aroma, flavour and colour) and in increasing yield. High juice yield is an important goal for juice manufacture. Many modern processes for fruit and vegetable juice production employ enzymes as important processing aids to obtain higher yields and clarity. The use of maceration enzymes increases extraction yield and improves processing without extra costs. These enzymes are used after the cut of the raw material, in order to macerate the pulp to total or partial fruit liquefaction, thereby decreasing processing time and improving the extraction of fruit components. Upon the extraction, pectinases are added for clarification and decreased viscosity in order to facilitate filtration and concentration.