Foodborne disease is defined as an event of two or more similar illness due to comsumption of food ( Soon et al., 2011 ). Foodborne illness can happen due to bacteria, virus and parasite. Most of the foodborne illness cause by cholera, typhoid fever, or hepatitis A which is associated with the acute gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or vomiting ( Blackburn and McClure, 2002). Factors that could contribute to foodborne diseases is like the temperature during the storage, composition of gases, interaction between microorganism and the food, the humidity and the organism that contaminating the food ( Hamad, 2012 ). Besides that foodborne bacteria also can transmitted by the stages of food preparation like slaughtering where the eat come into contact with the animal intestine or fur and also the improper handling ( European Food Safety Authority, 2014 ). Food handlers are the most common became the source of the contamination food because they can spread the microorganism by fecal oral route or skin lesions and in the same time the unhygiene kitchen surrounding ( Linscott, 2011 )
Characteristic of the Salmonella sp.
Salmonella sp is gram negative bacteria which also flagellated and anaerobic bacilli which charaterizes by by 3 type of antigens. Which is O, H,Vi antigens ( Stephanie Chandler, 2017 ). Salmonella infection know as the salmonellosis. The two common type of Salmonella that cause illness is the S. typhimurium and the S. enteriditis (Klochko, 2017). As the gram-negative bacilli, the capsules were made by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which this structure function as an endotoxin ( Giannella RA,1973 ).
The bacteria that common in foodborne diseases is Salmonella typhi. Usually the organism can be found at meat, poultry, dairy product, contaminated water,( Medical News Today, 2017 ). In general this organism spread by food contamination. Food poisoning always related to the water or food contaminated especially poultry, meat and dairy product ( Daniel Murell, MD,2017 ). Besides transmitted by food, this organism also can be transmitted by the pet reptiles ( Christian Nordqvist, 2017 ). Animal poop is often to be use as fertilizer which this situation can contributing in spreading the Salmonella ( Carol DerSarkissian, 2016 ).
Transmission also can happen during the food handler slaughter the the meat and come to contact with contact with the animal intestine ( European Food Safety, 2014 ). It also been proven that the Salmonella can grow at kitchen like the cutting board, cloth, sink ( Kusumaningrum et al., 2003 ) Ready prepared food already been trend in Malaysia ( Ali and Abdullah, 2012 ) which make some of the premise neglected the hygiene in order to let people buy so the consumer that consume the food get sick. ( Campos et al., 2009 ). The food preparation also can contribute to this illness which inappropriate ways of reheating or cooling the food ( Beumer and Kusimaningram, 2013 ). The temperature also play important role to the microorganism activity ( Aung and Chang, 2013). Those people who recovered from the illness may remain infectious to others ( Centre for diseases control, 2012 ). Owing pets like reptiles may increase the chances to get contact with the Salmonella bacteria.
Besides that not only the Salmonella can transmitted by food but also by the contaminated water. Many pathogens that gastrointestinal like those cuase by the typhoid fever are transmitted via water ( National Institutes of Health, 2011 )
Salmonella often liked to the food poisoning cases. Throughtout the world nearly ten million cases reported every year and most of the cases are from the children and the older people which have low immune system ( Carol DerSarkissian, 2016 ). This organism can cause the diseases which is the typhoid fever ( Daniel Murell, MD, 2017 ). The typhpoid fever cause by the Salmonella typhi ( Tomislav Mestrovic, 2017 ). Those people who infected by the Salmonella will have the symptons which is fever, vomiting, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea ( World Health Organization, 2017 ). The symptom tend to appear 12 to 72 hours after consume the food ( Christian Nordqvist 2017 ).
There 2 type of diseases that effect the human which is the typhoidal and non-typhoidal. Salmonella typhi is the typhoidal type which can cause the typhoid fever growth in intestinal tracts, and human as the host. Then the non-typhoidal Salmonella enteriditis which can be found at gastrointestinal of animal, reptiles bird or insect.Usually this type of Salmonella transmitted by animal-human contact trough certain food product like meat.
Everyone can be infected by the Salmonella but the children are most likely to get sick from the organism. About 50,000 cases Salmonellosis reported at United State and one third or it from children 4 years old or younger ( Rebecca L.Gill, 2017 ). Besides that people who are sick also tend to get the diseases which like people who suffer the sickle cell, cancer patient or pregnant women which endangered the baby.
There are also possible complication that the victim face. For example, the victims will have the joint pain, develop pain while in peeing, or dehydration ( Carol DerSarkissian, 2016 ). The uncommon complication known as reactive arthritis.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Usually the doctor will ask the patient about the symptom that the patient face like the food comsumption, food preparation or contact with pet and blood and stool test be use to determine the causes of the Salmonellosis ( Daniel Murrell, MD, 2017 ). By getting the diagnosis, health officers can know whether there is an outbreak in the area. Salmonell typhi are more often cause the active arthritis which in this situation blood test will required for the first diagnosis ( Petersel, 2005 ).
According to Carol DerSarkissian the treatment divided into few cases which is for the aldults, if they have the symptoms of the Salmonellosis tey nieed to drink a lot of water to replace the loss fluid example of the fluid is the Pedialyte which can prevent the dehydration. Next is for