For many years Jews have been either labelled the victims or the victimisers. There has always been confusion in relation to what harm they may bring as a group to the communities with whom they attempt to integrate with (Rickman, 2012). Many find that the use of the word ‘integrate’ may be unsuitable when referring to Jews, as there is an understanding that the Jewish people would prefer to keep themselves to themselves. Many observers feel that Jewish communities choose to separate themselves from the indigenous population and this makes it harder for people to understand and accept them within society. They keep themselves separate by using their own supermarkets, setting up their own schools and living in close proximity to one another, thus having their own Jewish communities.When considering the above, it is important to consider why Jewish communities seek to be separate from the native people. To fully understand the way of life for a Jew it is important to look at their history. Jews feel that they have been exiled, rejected and mistreated over centuries due to the diaspora, ‘the dispersion of the Jews outside of their homeland’, which lead to them being removed from their homeland. This happened for a number of reasons surrounding the ownership of the land after the Romans defeated the Jews due to the blame the Jews carried for killing Jesus. This then started the Diaspora which drove the Jews out of Palestine. Due to this, it is probable that they do not want to integrate with others to then have to be exiled yet again. They want something that they can call their own so that they can feel safe and secure, Zionists would argue that they believe Jews deserve their own state in their own ancestral homeland, Israel (Z. Beauchamp. 2017). This is backed up by their faith from the time of Moses which tells them to pursue God’s promise of deliverance into ‘The Promised Land’ which is Israel. This belief is backed up by the scripture which begins with Abraham and the promise God declared saying “To your descendants, I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates”. (Ritch. T. R. 2011), however, some may disagree. Jews are therefore criticised and sometimes punished for their efforts to remain as a separate social and religious group, one that is said to refuse to adapt to the values and the way of life of the non-Jewish societies in which they intend to live within (ADL. 2014). Jewish people can be represented in two distinct subcultures; Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews. They both share the same basic beliefs, but there are some variations in culture and practice. It’s not clear when the split began, but it is thought to have existed for more than a thousand years”. This divide then impacted the effect that the diaspora had on each group. (Rich, T. R. 2011).Sephardi Jews, which translates as ‘the Jews of Spain’ used to be one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities in the world (WIKI). The vibrant cultural life that Jews once established in Spain and Portugal was officially non-existence by the 16th century. This was a direct result of the Christian crusades, which lead to a large number of Jews being forced into Christianity to avoid death, torture or further expulsion. Ashkenazi Jews are the Jews of France, Germany, and Eastern Europe. This meant that these Jews were the most affected for when the Holocaust occurred. But was more able to spread themselves across other countries, which allowed more awareness of their religion and allowed them to get away. Even though there is a separation of subcultures within Judaism, both follow the idea of Zionism which is the “national movement of the Jewish people that supports a re-establishment of the Jewish Homeland’ (Schama, S. 2012). Schama goes on to say “It has been said that the Jewish relationship with the Zion has always been one of the markers of Jewish difference.” Many Jewish people see Israel as being the only possible homeland whereas others could accept the re-establishment of the group in other parts of the world, this can be said for many Jews that have built families and their life within European countries such as the UK. Even though their faith tells them that returning would be the right thing to do, some feel that they’d be giving up what they have worked hard for and are therefore happy to remain, this idea of whether to remain or make Aliyah could split Jewish opinions. Despite Jews agreeing on the notions of Zionism, there is a difference of opinion on interpretation; some believe a literally physical homeland, Israel. Whereas, others may see it as a metaphorical homeland, can make it anywhere. When looking at the Jews wanting to remain and the Jews wanting to make Aliyah, there are different political and religious reasons which support their decision. Even though some Jews do not want to return to Israel, Zionism is seen to be a success as the percentage of the world’s Jewish population who live in Israel has steadily grown over the years and today 40% of the world’s Jews live in Israel (Marcel. L. 2011). The word Aliyah is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel, for the Jews to need to return to Israel, this would imply that they would have had to of left in the first place, when looking into this some Jews argue that in fact they never left at all, and instead some Jews decided to spread themselves across Europe while some remained within Israel during the 2,000-year exile period (Irving M. Zeitlin. 2012). As we mention before the reason for them leaving was due to them being removed by the Roman Catholics, some would suggest that some Jews went into hiding at the time to prevent violence being brought upon them, while some left to go to other countries across Europe and the USA and questions were raised on why other countries allowed them to enter if the Jews were so ‘bad’. At the time there was a need for cheap labour which may be one of the reasons for this. Some felt like spreading themselves across Europe would widen the awareness of the religion and also make it more difficult for acts of violence to be put towards them (Marcel. L. 2011). The Jewish scripture explains the idea that being outside of Israel is viewed as an unnatural state for a Jew. (Rich, T. R. 2011) and that they should exist as a collective source to be part of the same community. While this may be a valid and a motivating factor for their return, there are other reasons which may assist a Jew to make a decision to make the journey in order to strengthen their Jewish ties and to embed themselves in a thoroughly Jewish environment. This include; Learning Hebrew, celebrating Jewish holidays, raising children in the Jewish homeland, and living among other Jewish people from all over the world (A. Abramson. 2012).Natan Sharansky comments on how other important reasons for the Jews making the Aliyah is due to a desire to be part of the Jewish Community, the rise of anti-Semitism and economic recession which has not impacted Israel to the same degree as other countries. For many Jewish believers, these motivations are incredibly important. In the Diaspora, many Jews struggled to remain connected to their Jewish background. While it would be an exaggeration to suggest that Jewish people do not experience Jewishness outside of Israel, the reality is that many who live in Israel have found that their Jewish experience is enriched in many ways. For example, Marcel L (2011) stated that he made Aliyah as he was eager for a fresh start. As mentioned above, the rise of Anti-Semitism is a big reason for Jews wanting to return to their homeland and also be with other Jews. Anti-Semitism can be described as “the hostile belief or behaviour towards Jews for the sole reason that they are Jewish.” (Oxford Dictionary. 2017). This may take form from an idea that people or a group of people believe that they are inferior to Jews due to prejudice or stereotypical views that they may have. Many political efforts have been made to isolate, oppress or otherwise cause violence on Jews due to the belief dating back to ancient times including the days of the Bible until the Roman Reign. The rise of Christianity greatly increased hatred of the Jews. The Jews became seen as outsiders but also as people who rejected Jesus and crucified him. By the middle ages (11th – 14th Century) Jews were widely persecuted as barely human, words like ‘Christ Killers’ and ‘Devils’ were used. (REFERENCE). Other issues surrounded the time when Germany was in an economic crisis due to the repercussions of World War 1, where they were forced to pay reparations for losing the war. At the time Germany did not have the money to pay therefore the government decided to print money to pay off the debts. This action caused a hyper-inflation within the country where the money became worthless. In 1933, Hitler was then appointed Chancellor of Germany after an election due to the promises he made to improve Germany’s economy (Marcel. L. 2011). As this was happening, Jewish businesses were doing well within Germany, which created resentment amongst the population, fuelling the fire that enabled the Nazi regime to bring about Anti-Jewish laws in 1935, and then subsequently the holocaust 10 years later (Marcel. L. 2011). This then caused many Jews to run away from Europe spreading into other countries. (Rickman, G. 2012). This and the prior hatred of the Jews became Germany’s justification for seeking to kill every Jewish person in the lands which Germany occupied during World War 2, even the children of those who had converted to Christianity were murdered due to being members of the Jewish race. The Holocaust resulted in the death of an estimated six million Jews — more than a third of the world’s Jewish population (REFERENCE). While the rise to power of the Nazis in the 1930s involved numerous social and political factors, these views are what helped turn anti-Semitism into official government policy including the belief that Jews destroyed societies; that Jews secretly worked together to gain control of the world; and that Jews already controlled world finance, business, media and entertainment. Before the Holocaust, the Zionist movement central aims were the creation of a Jewish National Home in Palestine. After the Holocaust, the movement focused on a Jewish State, with the creation of Israel, as people noticed that Jews had nowhere to officially live or call their own. As time has gone on, Jews are still holding the blame for killing Jesus and a constant reminder of the Holocaust due to this being the first thing that comes to many people’s mind when you mention the word ‘Jews’. For many Jews, the existence of anti-Semitic views is a constant reminder of the cultural memory of the Concentration Camps and their suffering under Nazi Germany even if they did not experience it themselves directly. The idea that the discrimination against Jews is still prevalent today is called Modern Anti – Semitism. Even though events such as the Holocaust, in particular, should be something that society is able to look back on and learn from.As mentioned at the start of this essay, people associate Jews as both the victims and the Victimizers, they were blamed for killing Jesus but have also had to go through their own pain during the constant exiles and holocaust. The confusion also prompts questions about the Jewish race that fall into two extremes ‘Jews are success stories, or Jews are a plague? Jews are devils or Jews are God’s chosen people.’ (Rickman, 2012). Some Jews still believe that they went through this pain as God chose them and that he is trying to test them to see their dedication. After WW2, the state of Israel was established, as the restoral homeland of the Jewish people. Israel is now regarded as Central to Jewish life and identity. Israel is defined as a Jewish and Democratic state in its basic laws and is the world’s only Jewish majority state. To enter Israel, you have to prove that you are a Jew due to Jews currently being in political control of the land (Marcel. L. 2011). The State of Israel, since its establishment, has adopted this principle. “The land shall not be sold in perpetuity” (Leviticus 25, 23) which appears in many verses dealing with the commandments related to the land in the Land of Israel. It expresses a ruling that the Land of Israel belongs only to God; He has given it to the People of Israel as a whole and not to private individuals. (Katz. Y. 2016). Modern Israel came into existence on 14 May 1948 as the homeland for the Jewish people. The Balfour Declaration that was issued by the British Government after World War 1 is still valid. This allowed the establishment in then Palestine, which allowed a national home for the Jewish people. Since World War 2, this has now been renamed Israel for which is seen as their homeland and exclusively for Jews. There was a progression after World War 1 of the Jews making Aliyah, however, this was disrupted during World War 2 and the rise of the Nazi regime during the Holocaust. Recently the current Prime Minister of the UK, Theresa May, delivered a speech regarding the declaration and the promise of making a national homeland for the Jews. This is what aids the Jews to make Aliyah today and allows Jews who live in the UK to remain should they want to. CONCLUSIONMix of reasons for wanting to go back (Political / Religious) Throughout this essay, there have been a various amount of reasons for the Jews wanting to make Aliyah or remain where they are. There have been many disagreements within the Jewish faith which is shown in this essay on what is the correct action to take, using the information provided within this essay, it is shown to be more of a factor of personal belief rather than written law.