Frankfurt market and motivation by profit (Encarta).Frankfurt market and motivation by profit (Encarta).

school is the institute of Social Research and it is social and political
philosophical movement of thought. ‘Frankfurt School’ emerged in the 1930s and
included such scholars as Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and
somewhat later, Jürgen Habermas. Critical theory is critique on modernities and
capitalist society. It is specifically based on interpretation of Marxist
philosophy(Marxism is an economic and social system based upon the political
and economic theories of Karl Marx). It expanded Marx’s thoery.

Marx explains that Economic system
based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of
goods, characterized by a free competitive market and motivation by profit (Encarta).
There are basically four generation of critical theory and still its growing
with the passage of time. This thoery is based on method of dialectics(if two
or more people holding different point of view but establish truth through
reasoned arguments).

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theory denotes a school of academic thought which challenge dominant
ways of exploring and explaining organizational phenomena (Scherer,
2009). Adorno and Horkheimer catch in the Dialectic
of Enlightenment “what men need to gain from nature is the manner by
which to utilize it all together completely to command it and other men”
(1972: 4). Drawing on different scholarly conventions, critical theory looks to
uncover the mastery, control and concealment that takes cover behind that which
at first seems impartial, dynamic and essential. Representing this inclination,
the rationale and reason for positivism is every now and again a center protest
of scrutinize for critical theorists.

Marx’s footsteps, hungarian György Lukács Also italian Antonio Gramsci created
hypotheses that investigated the social What’s more ideological boundary sides
for energy and mastery. Both Lukács Also Gramsci concentrated their investigate
on the social constrains that prevent individuals starting with seeing Also
understanding the types of force What’s more mastery that exist On culture
What’s more influence their existence.

to this is an emancipatory plan; this theory reinterprets existing requests as
well as offers elective methods of comprehension and being which free those
hushed and shackled by traditional theory. In Horkheimer’s the theory is
critical because “to free individuals from the conditions that subjugate
them” (1982: 244).

 theory states that people have nothing
will, and could settle on their decisions, Anyhow requirement on grasp
actuality. Those incredulous standard infers that people need aid living done a
illusion, as well as have confidence those planet will be socially constructed.


critical theorists epistemological beliefs are based on critique. They feel the
best way to know something is through criticizing it. This was the guideline
for the research of the co-cultural theories.

critical theory of modernity Habermas emphasizes the rational potential of
modernity and the danger of its eclipse by technical-instrumental concerns. He
argues that the interpenetration of state and economy in advanced capitalism
leads to new forms of social crises.

final stage of the struggle would have seen the political and economic
empowerment of lower class of citizens. Critical theorist not only focused on
capitalisim but also on sociology, political science philosophy, art,
literature and cutural studies.




theory seeks freedom and eqauality. It promotes a democratic society where
people realize their importance. When it comes to our society we portrayed that
Pakistan is a democratic country in which every single citizen is free from
salavry. Everyone have right of freedom of speech and our political system is
also based on our democracy. But reality is totatlly opposite. Basically our
country is based on Marx philosophy. Our society is divided into groups elite
class and lower class. Our politicians, policy makers state actors and non
state actors are in the elite class and our citizens public is in lower class. Elite
class is getting richer day by day and lower class is getting poorer day by

theory also states that society conflict is not only based on system of
production but also based on system of beliefs. Every society grows on
conflict. Our society is made up only on conflicts. If we see  the cases based on gender discrimination or gender
unequality, these type of cases shows that every aspect of the society is
divided into parts.

all are connected with each other as we are in the fifth era of technology i.e global
village. We all are adapting new technology. We think that as a society our
dependency is finished. We are not depending on other society members, but
reality is the opposite now we all are depended on technology.




            This theory may be described as a
idea of placing human beings freed from human enslavement, and manipulation.
both Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno argued that essential theory is the
concept of human emancipation primarily based on unfastened capitalist society,
the bourgeoisies controlled the running elegance through manipulation of
pastimes of politics, media, way of life as a silent dominant pressure. The
critical theory argues that there are numerous kinds of manipulation, inclusive
of; Ideological, this consists of justifying choices made by using imposing
one’s mind onto another, secondly, Cultural, this consists of the attempt to
commercialise to preserve the reputation quo of the running class. but our
society isn’t unfastened from slavery.

end to the above, we will see that there are numerous extraordinary views on
how society runs, and as we are able to see is whether or not society is nice
the manner it’s far, or what should be changed if it’s not. The crucial theory
is manifestly critical of society as it’s far now, The critical principle is
specifically essential of how society is in phrases of exploitation of people.,
especially jobs together with labour work. but, the critical concept may be
negatively criticised because it continually looks upon society negatively.
Horkheimer argued that the a theory can best be essential if it’s far
explanatory, therefore important principle should effectively give an
explanation for what is wrong with the current society and what is needed to
make it right, (Bohman, 1996). As we are able to see, there are many elements
that affect society, additionally we can how society ‘mind washes’ people to
wondering that they stay in an identical society system.