Have guilt and self-degradation as a formHave guilt and self-degradation as a form

Have you ever lied to your beloved one about stealing something from them? Did you shortly disclose to them or perpetually bury the secret in your heart and lived with the guilt? Hosseini believes in the latter. He emphasizes that the bond that brings human beings closer also allows them to make certain choices which leads them to guilt; thus they cover up that guilt with punishing themselves to make up for compassion. In Khaled Hosseini’s And the Mountains Echoed, Saboor, an impecunious father, sells Pari to the affluent, but disintegrated family of the Wahdatis, as a daughter. Then, out of jealousy for the same man, Saboor, Parwana harms her sister, Masooma, but feels guilty and punishes herself. Moreover, when Idris visits Kabul to claim his father’s old house, he becomes attached to a young girl, Roshana, but due to cowardice, chooses to leave her. Firstly, Saboor becomes dejected and isolates himself because of his plans to sell Pari. Then, Masooma blames herself for the misfortune of her family because she had belittled Parwana. Finally, Idris renders himself incapable of changing the world and becomes depressed. Sincere bonds that form between individuals are so strong that when harmful choices are made against an individual, it leads the other individual to develop guilt and self-degradation as a form of compassion.Despite the immense love between family members, they make certain unpleasant choices, which harms another, and subsequently penalize themselves for it. Additionally, Saboor demonstrates that individuals isolate themselves and become paranoid because of the vulnerability that had lead them to make those decisions. The author states, “unlike Baba Ayub’s anguish, a river that swelled and swelled with each passing day… Baba Ayub did nothing… a lone, wretched figure gazing toward the mountains… he believed they muttered things behind his back… A real father would have fought the div,” (Hosseini 7). Saboor tells a story of a poverty-stricken village where an old man, Baba Ayub, is forced to renounce his beloved son when the mountain div knocks their door. He compares this story to the current crisis he is going through prior to selling his Pari, his youngest and beloved daughter. He shows how his decision of selling Pari will haunt him perpetually. He is paranoid that the villagers backbite about him. His heart feels weak, he is anxious, and useless to his family because he has sequestered himself. The div is a beast in many tales, which symbolises Nabi, Parwana’s brother who coerced Saboor to relinquish his daughter to the Wahdatis. It symbolizes that there is always a beast inside us which forces us to make painful choices against our beloved ones. Moreover, Saboor feels emotionally perplexed and penalizes through isolation, anti-social, and desolation. The narrator asserts, “father’s face clouding over, drawn into confusing shades of emotion… looked diminish to him now, stripped of something essential. He loped sluggishly about the house… his voice dragged now in a way Abdullah did not remember, as though something weighed on each word he spoke… didn’t tell stories anymore,” (50). Saboor loves telling stories, but his choice of selling Pari due to poverty, weighs heavy on his mind and voice; it also weighs like a physical burden and keeps him dispirited. He does not perform most of the tasks around the house and becomes monotone; it emotionally kills him. Hence, due to certain hurtful choices, individuals escalate in isolation and guilt because the compassion between their loved ones in too powerful. The love between family is so strong that series of spiteful choices, a time comes and they host guilt and nurture a demeaning mindset. During childhood, Masooma always devalued Parwana because she felt she was superior to her. When they grow up, Masooma forces herself to leave her town because she has made too many mistakes and pained her sister; she punishes herself. The author affirms, “‘You’re not.’ Masooma is crying now. ‘I’m letting you go. I am releasing you,'” (72). Due to guilt, Masooma detaches herself from her childhood village, emotionally and physically. She knows that she has made several tragic choices to harm her sister’s reputation. Parwana is already ignored in the society, while Masooma is loved by everyone; thus Masooma outlines herself furthermore in society when Parwana is around. When they are older, she leaves her twin sister back in their village because she feels like a burden to her. Masooma releases her sister because she knows that Parwana is too loyal, after all their feuds, to let her go; yet she knows that the benefit is her departure. Masooma feels guilty, thus decides to end all the problems by being erased in her sister’s life because she loves Parwana. Also, Masooma belittles herself because of a series of past events and choices made that have put her sister down. The author mentions, “‘I’m tired, Parwana. It’s not a life, what I have. My existence is a punishment to us both,” (72). Masooma shows guilt of the past she and Parwana shared in which she played the role of the villain. She consistently made her sister feel inferior to her wherever they went. Before relinquishing her sister, Masooma explains to her how tired she is living her life in their village, not only because the place is a reminder of poverty, but because of the friction that exists between the sisters. Their devalued relationship is all Masooma’s wrongdoings and mistakes and she wants to rectify it through exiting the village and being forgotten. Hence, between family members or loved ones, guilt is a form of compassion that exists because wrong choices and misdeeds have been committed. Love is a strong relationship that allows human beings to feel culpable if an individual makes treacherous choices against another individual. Idris illustrates that due to his cowardice and peer pressure to help Roshana, he is guilty and becomes dispirited. The author states, “a terrible misreading of the measures of his own powers and will and character… He isn’t capable of it,” (178). Idris feels immense dejection because he chose to broke his promise to Roshana, a young refugee girl, about bringing her home to America. It is clear that he recognizes that he regrets promising to Roshana to bring her out of the miserable life she lives due to peer pressure from the people around him. He is a rich doctor, yet he feels that it is impossible to adopt a young girl. This shows his state of mind because all his life he has refrained from humanitarian work and when the opportunity arises, he ignores it. He has sparked hope in Roshana who has become emotionally attached to him. His heart is guilty of his actions but he feels helpless because he has no support. As a result, he becomes emotionally despaired. Additionally, Idris goes through emotional distraughtness because he has proven treacherous because he chose to render a girl helpless. The author states, “He closes the book, his eyes too. He supposes he should be relieved… but it hurts. He feels the blow of it, like an ax to the head… He walks over and leaves the book on it. And it is a while before he trusts himself to turn the key and drive away,” (181). Just like Idris removed Roshana from her life and made a treacherous decision against her, similarly, Roshana removed him from her life as well. Roshana writes a book and in her book she implies that Idris is replied with his famous cousin because he is not worth being mentioned. Idris, due to compassion for that girl, feels betrayed and hurt, but in reality he has betrayed Roshana after sparking hope in her. Resultantly, he feels low-spirited and does not trust himself to drive; his past choice weighs heavily on his mind and it hurts him that he made that choice. He is mentally dejected and pained demonstrating that the power of familial love, which he feels for Roshana, is so influential and strong that a single breach in that love dispirit individuals. Thus, a single rupture in trust and familial love causes individuals to become depressed and dejected because of the guilt they experience.Therefore, in And the Mountains Echoed, harmful choices made against individuals in familial love result in guilt and extreme disconsolation because these bonds are very strong. First, Saboor becomes a victim of depression and experiences a change of personalities because he sold his daughter due to