Human The A and B peptide chainsHuman The A and B peptide chains

Human demand often dictates the flow of mankind. In order to fulfill our demands and desires, we are willing to do anything in order to fulfill that demand. An example would be recombinant DNA technology, something that fulfilled the demand of insulin for diabetic treatment.The human race is still using recombinant DNA technology to this day to develop new enzymes and such(Goyal et al). Scientists were given the power to start combining the DNA molecules of different organisms – an example would be combining viruses(“Genetics Generation”).A successful result birthed from recombinant DNA technology would be – Humulin. A human insulin engineered by Genentech.In order to produce a molecule that serves the same function as a insulin molecule that is produced by the pancreas. You would need to genetically engineer the bacteria to produce bacteria from the DNA strands at high concentrations to create a viable product for the market. The insulin molecule was more complex than other molecules, having 51 amino acids(“Cloning Insulin”). The A and B peptide chains consisting respectively of 21 and 30 amino acids, linked by a disulfide bond(“Structure of Insulin”).Due to the two different peptide chains, there raised a need for two chains of encoding DNA, as the two peptide chains do not share the same amount of amino acids(“Insulin production”). Scientists used two different bacterias that acted as an enabler to produce more insulin(“National Library of Medicine”). Then, they proceeded to combine the genes by linking DNA sequences, inserting the gene found from the DNA at the top of the eleventh chromosome into the bacteria(“Synthesis of Human Insulin”). To expound on how the gene is extracted – the double strand of the eleventh chromosome unravels, showing nitrogenous bases that are unpaired. The gene goes through protein synthesis, where the amount in each chain of amino acids are pre-determined by messenger RNA, and then formed by transfer RNA(“Synthesis of Human Insulin”).The gene turns into a amino acids sequence that serve as the building blocks of the insulin protein and links together to form insulin(“Synthesis of Human Insulin”).The gene is then inserted into the plasmid and returned to the bacteria. Finally, the bacteria goes through fermentation and uses the gene to produce more insulin. As an anabolic hormone, insulin is then administered to diabetic patients who need it to regulate sugar levels – serving the same function as the anabolic hormone produced by the pancreas(“What is Insulin?”).To expound on the problem at hand – there was a demand for insulin at the time.  Due to the amount of people who had diabetes. Synthetic insulin provided a product that was more environmentally friendly. Initially, people with diabetes mainly relied on insulin derived from the pancreas of cattle, and other animals. It was a largely inefficient product, requiring 8000 pounds of animal pancreas glands to produce a pound of insulin(“Cloning Insulin”). The reason that the problem of inefficient diabetic treatment occurred was due to the lack of options. Doctors could only rely on insulin to regulate sugar levels as treatment for people with diabetes, and they didn’t have enough of it.(“History of Insulin”).Using the recombinant DNA method, there resulted in less dependence on animal glands to create synthetic insulin. Eventually, the problem regarding the efficiency of production of insulin was resolved because of recombinant DNA technology. A problem that could have resulted in millions of deaths, due to the lack of insulin for diabetic patients(Jr).Recombinant DNA technology has been also pivotal in paving the way for medicine. It was something that opened doors for people who were unable to get treatment for certain diseases. Producing insulin at a more effective rate, which will allow more accessibility to diabetic treatment via humulin.Recombinant DNA Technology is a biotechnology that allowed treatment for diabetes. It is only through the technology, that insulin pumps and insulin injections exist today as means of treatment for people who have diabetes(“Diabetes treatment”). Human insulin is one of the only man made proteins that are almost completely identical to the ones that are produced in the pancreas. The possibility that there could result in a breach of antibody protection is almost considered non-existent, due to how similar it is to the natural molecule (“The Synthesis of Human Insulin”).However, using Recombinant DNA technology to produce insulin also has bore some negative implications in both the past and the present. Genetic manipulation through DNA recombinant technology has raised ethical and moral issues. Further on, it is also suggestive of certain health risks.(“Taking Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes”) An example would be how the final product by host cells(which is insulin). Insulin is reproduced over and over again in the process of fermentation. During the process of fermentation, there lies a risk of contamination in the broth. However, it was resolved with the purification process of the insulin.(“Synthesis of Human Insulin”)Despite the biotechnology’s prowess, there have been people claiming that that it is because of the change of insulin, that has caused them to be less cognisant after switching from animal-derived insulin to recombinant insulin. For instance, a british patient who had been depending on insulin stated that she has been experiencing recurrent hypoglycemia after substituting the seemingly new and furnished version of animal derived insulin.(“Synthesis of Human Insulin”). However, researchers found that there was no difference in episodes(“Synthesis of Human Insulin”).To evaluate this piece of biotechnology, I have designed a criteria. Which includes effectiveness, amount of risks, ethical threats, and the design of the process.Recombinant DNA technology fulfills the criteria set. Firstly, recombinant DNA technology, without a hint of doubt is effective at producing human insulin for treatment – which can be seen to be positively received by the market and patients. Statistics show that there have been 30,000,000 prescriptions in the United States.(“Clincalc Drugstats Database”).Meaning that humulin has been commonly used as treatment for diabetes – succeeding as a product both on the market economically, and also as a product that saves lives. The amount of risks appear to be minimal, only including uncertainties. The only risk present would be the claim that hypoglycemic episodes occur more in those who use humulin – which is based on user opinion, as the study in Lancet proved otherwise with the researchers finding that there was no significant difference in the frequency of signs of hypoglycaemia between the two types of insulin.To summarize, the benefits outweigh the limitations.Recombinant DNA technology also fulfills the third element of threats and factors. The technology doesn’t impact the environment negatively – as it is what allowed the rejection of animal insulin and ethically it has been able to save lives. The design of the process is coherent and contains minimal defection, a ethical process that doesn’t include animal abuse. Evident in my evaluation, and in accord with how the limitations and benefits have been weighed. I evaluate recombinant DNA technology, to be something that should be continued for use for the sake of humanity – but also should be further examined to eliminate all possible uncertainties regarding its health risks.