Humans have to over come. Erickson statesHumans have to over come. Erickson states

Humans
never stop developing even into adulthood, and there is no correct way to
develop. Each individual grows in their own unique way. This idea has intrigued
many theorists; they decided to explore the different factors that cause each
individual to develop in their own unique way. This chapter outlines five key
aspects to development: psychoanalytic, cognitive, behavioral and social
cognitive, ethological, and ecological. According to John W. Santrock, although
the theories disagree about certain aspects of development, rather then
contradict one another the ideas are complementary (Santrock, 1995).

            John Santrock states that
psychoanalytic theories describe the development as primarily unconscious and
heavily colored by emotion (Santrock, 1995). One of the psychoanalytical
theories that stood out to me was Erikson’s theory. Erickson’s theory believes
that human behavior is social and is dependent on the interpersonal
relationships people build with others. These aspects of life aid with finding
oneself and molding who they are. Development doesn’t just occur in early
stages of life but throughout the whole lifespan. Erickson’s theory is divided
into eight different stages which one unfolds as they go through the different
stages of their life. In order to advance from the different stages the
individual needs to face a crisis that they have to over come. Erickson states
that the more successfully the individuals resolve the crises, the healthier
their development will be (Santrock, 1995).

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            Cognitive theories emphasize
conscious thoughts. Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes how culture and social
interaction guide cognitive development (Santrock, 1995). Vygotsky believes
that children are actively involved with gaining their own knowledge. Vygotsky
states, “learning is a necessary and universal of the process of developing
culturally organized, specifically human psychological function” (Vygotsky,
1978). He believes that social learning comes before development. Cognitive
development has a direct correlation with learning to use the modern inventions
of society. Another huge factor playing a significant impact on cognitive
development are a children’s interactions with adults. Adults are able to
propagate their culture’s tools of intellectual adaptation that children are
able to grasp and aid them into becoming more successful in their culture
(McLeod, 2014).

            Both of the theorists have developed
theories that are similar in that they describe human development. They both
delve deeper into the psychology of why they believe humans develop the way
they do. Both of the theories are similar in that they believe social
interactions mold human development. For example in Erickson’s theory, it is
social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people (Santrock, 1995).
Vygotsky’s theory says that adult to child social interactions are pivotal to
development. Rather than having many similarities I believe that these two
theories complement each other.

            The theories also have many
differences. They differ at their core and they stress different aspects of
development. Psychoanalytic theories stress the importance of the unconscious
while cognitive theories stress conscious thoughts. Another key difference is
that while Erickson’s theory stresses on different stages of development,
Vygotsky puts an emphasis on the cognitive learning aspect. Despite having
their clear differences, both theories together help complete the puzzle of
human development (Santrock, 1995).

            In my opinion, I think that
Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory is the best description of human
development. I believe that most core values are instilled in one’s adolescent
years. You also see that society is of huge importance in the cognitive development.
This is evident and seen through the millennials and how they are dependent on
technology. You can notice that the Generation X era is not so tech savvy, and
don’t rely heavily on technology. Development involves learning to use the
modern inventions of society (Santrock, 1995). Society also plays a huge role
in our education system. I can also understand how adult and child interaction
is essential to cognitive development. During my childhood I was around many
adults who were teaching and instilling their cultural beliefs in me. This is
where my core values stem from. Now that I have grown older I am a
representation of those cultural beliefs that were passed down to me.