ILO/WHO performance, the term also includes fire,explosionILO/WHO performance, the term also includes fire,explosion

ILO/WHO Committee’s definition of occupational health:Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degreeof physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations, the preventionamongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions, theprotection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse tohealth, the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environmentadapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities, and to summarize: theadaptation of work to man and of each man to his job.1Definition of worker”Any man or woman over the age of sixteen working in return for any type ofremuneration, for an employer and under his supervision and management, whetherunder a written or unwritten, explicit or implicit contract, or under training or probationperiod, or performing mental, technical, office, or administrative work.”Definition of employer”Any person who employs, under a contract of employment, one person or more in returnfor any type of remuneration”Definition of occupational accident:Accident: any occupational injury or disease which afflicts the worker during workinghours or because of work and which hinders his performance, the term also includes fire,explosion or collapse at the workplace, serious accident any accident which causes thedeath of a worker or his disability by 50 per cent or the injury of more than one worker,It also includes fire, explosion, collapse causing damage to equipment or to theworkplace. 2.*Tools for the sound management of occupational safety and health:· a national occupational safety and health policy,T h a n a O m e r A b b k e r N a s r Page· a national occupational safety and health system; and· a national occupational safety and health programme based on the elaboration andperiodic updating of a national occupational safety and health profile*Major occupational safety and health instruments:-International labour standards is one of the main functions of the ILO , codes of practice,the provision of technical advice and the dissemination of information., by these means itaims to increase the capacity of member states to prevent occupational accidents andwork-related diseases by improving working conditions, has been the development ofinternational labour standards, the ILO also develops codes of practice in addition tolabour standardsThere are practical recommendations, sometimes highly technical and scientificallydetailed, to be used as guidance on implementing the labour standards or on addressing aparticular issue, ILO codes of practice like labour standards are developed in a tripartitecontext, but through a meeting of The ILO Conventions and Recommendations onoccupational safety and health embody principles which define the rights of workers inthis field as well as allocating duties and responsibilities to the competent authorities, toemployers and to workers experts nominated by the governing Body rather than theILO’s constituents OSH standards broadly fall into six groups, according to their scope orpurpose*Scope and purpose of OSH standards:Conventions and Recommendations on occupational safety and health may serve severalpurpose acting as:• fundamental principles to guide policies for promotion, action and management.• general protection measures for example guarding of machinery, medical examinationof young workers or limiting the weight of loads to be transported by a single worker.• protection in specific branches of economic activity.• protection of specific professions for example nurses and seafarers, and categories ofworkers having particular occupational health needs such as women or young workers.• protection against specific risks such as ionizing radiation, benzene, asbestos preventionof occupational cancer, control of air pollution, noise and vibration in the workingenvironment, measures to ensure safety in the use of chemicals, including the preventionof major industrial accidents.• organizational measures and procedures relating, for example, to labour inspection orcompensation for occupational injuries and diseases.*Major ILO instruments concerning occupational safety and in general:-Roughly half of the 188 Conventions and 199 Recommendations adopted by theInternational Labour Conference between 1919 and 2007 address directly or indirectly,issues of occupational safety and health, general provisions are contained in the followingup-to-date instruments:•In 1953 Protection of Workers Health Recommendation.• In 1981 Occupational Safety and Health Convention, and RecommendationT h a n a O m e r A b b k e r N a s r Page• In 1985Occupational Health Services Convention, and• In 1993 Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention, and Recommendation• In 2002 List of Occupational Diseases Recommendation.• Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention.• In 2006 Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention*Education and training:-The need to give appropriate training in occupational safety and health to workers andtheir representatives in the enterprise should thus be stressed as a fundamental element ofOSH policy, and should be stated explicitly in the policy document, employers shouldalso learn how to gain the confidence of their workers and motivate them, workers shouldbe provided with adequate training in terms of the technical level of their activity and thenature of their responsibilities, this aspect is as important as the technical content oftrainingFigure 1: How the core OSH standards relate to ILO standards on other issues3*Occupational Safety and Health in Sudan:-*Institutions and programmes relating to OSH administration and/or enforcement:-· 1. The Federal Minister of Labour is the competent national authority on safety andhealth at work it has a certain Objectives, roles and/or functions:-· The Committee shall:o coordinate, in accordance with the adopted general policy, the activities of theexecutive bodies in charge of workers.T h a n a O m e r A b b k e r N a s r Pageo calculate and count, on a regular basis the number of workers and submit tothe Minister all the information and recommendations which it deemsnecessary for submission to the Council of Ministers.o supervise the implementation of the adopted labour programmes in a mannerwhich is adapted to the plans for development.o perform any other activities related to labour which the Minister may assign itto perform within the framework of the general policy adopted by the Councilof Ministers.· The Committee may empower any of its authorities to the branch Committees in thedistricts.· 2. National OSH research programme or institute.· 3. National OSH programme.*Employers duties and responsibilities to protect the safety and health of workersand others:-· Duty to ensure the health and safety of employees: every owner of an industry shallinform his workers of the occupational hazards and means for protection against suchhazards , the shall take the necessary precautions to protect workers against industrialaccidents and occupational diseases· Duty to protect the health and safety of people other than their own employees· Collaboration among two or more employers at the same workplace· Surveillance of workers health in relation to work· Surveillance of the working environment and working practices every owner of anindustry shall inform his workers of the occupational hazards and means forprotection against such hazards, he shall take the necessary precautions to protectworkers against industrial accidents and occupational diseases.· Duty to provide personal protective equipment: the factory owner should ensure thatadequate protective equipment is provided to workers, and that these equipments areproperly maintained, he should also ensure that workers use these equipment.· Duty to ensure the usage of personal protective equipment: the factory owner shouldensure that adequate protective equipment is provided to workers, and that theseequipments are properly maintained, he should also ensure that workers use theseequipment.· Duty to provide first-aid and welfare facilities such as:· 1. Arrangements for first-aid: every factory or work place must be equipped with afirst aid box with specific contents and under the supervision of a trained first aidstaff.· 2. Sanitary installations: standards on toilets and sanitary installations shall beavailable for men and women.· 3. Drinking water: clean healthy water should be provided in sufficient amount inwork locations.· 4. Rest and eating areas: clean areas supplied with chairs and tables and away fromthe work location should be provided.T h a n a O m e r A b b k e r N a s r Page* Employers duty to organize prevention formally along generally accepted OSHmanagement principles and practices:-· 1. Elements of an OSH management system:-· Policy or plan specifying responsibilities and arrangements for health and safetythe industrial safety committee shall be in charge of drawing up the policy forindustrial safety in the factory and the supervision of its application, the committeeshall notify the competent authority and the owner of the factory of any matter relatedto the conditions of industrial safety inside the factory and of the recommendations itmakes regarding the latter.· Appointment of a person for health and safety· Written risk assessment· Safe operating work systems and procedures· Training and information on risks· Employers shall not assign a worker to perform a job before providing him withenough training or before making him work under the supervision of one or moreexperienced persons in the field, every owner of an industry shall inform his workersof the occupational hazards and means for protection against such hazards.· Review or assessment of the results of preventive measures· Consultation with workers in health and safety· 2. Obligation to implement a specific OSH management system or standard.* Employers duty to ensure availability of expertise and competence in health andsafety:-· OSH competence which needs Requirement to access expert advice and/or support inhealth and safety through qualifications of experts or professional services· Appointment of an OSH practitioner: workforce size threshold for the appointment ofOSH practitioners* Workers’ rights and duties:-· Duty to take reasonable steps to protect the safety and health of others· Supervisors’ duty to take reasonable steps to protect the safety and health of others· Senior officers’ duty to take reasonable steps to protect the safety and health of others· Duty to comply with OSH-related requirements· Duty to take reasonable steps to protect their own safety and health· Right to remove themselves from a dangerous situation· Right to enquire about risks and preventive measures· Right to be reassigned to non-hazard work: right to withdraw with compensationwhen workers are not reassigned to non-hazard work· Self-employed persons’ duty to take reasonable steps to protect their own and otherpeople’s health and safety*Consultation, collaboration and co-operation with workers and theirrepresentatives:-T h a n a O m e r A b b k e r N a s r PageNational OSH committee, commission, council or similar body a committee under thename of Federal Consultative Committee for the affairs related to Industrial Safety shallbe established by an order of the minister to include a president and a number ofcompetent members.*Specific hazards or risks:-· Biological hazards· Chemical hazards: handling, storage, labelling and use, duty of manufacturers,pesticides· Ergonomic hazards· Physical hazards, ionising radiation, vibration and noise, working at height, workingin confined spaces, risks arising from poor maintenance of workplace facilities,exposure to extreme temperatures, fire risks, tobacco, asbestos periodicmedical check-ups are required for workers with exposure to asbestos dust, risksrelated to nanotechnology contraction of HIV in the workplace.· Psychosocial hazards: psychosocial risks, occupational violence.· Machineries: risks related to machinery and tools· Provisions to protect workers in specific condition of vulnerability: protection ofpregnancy at work, protection of lactating women at work, limits to women’s accessto specific occupations 2.* Recording, notification and investigation of accidents/incidents and diseases*OSH inspection and enforcement of OSH legislation*The Labor Law included regulations and supplementary instructions as follows:The labour law:-The Labor Law included regulations and supplementary instructions as follows: In thework environment in factories: for crowding, for hygiene, for lighting, for noise andvibrations, for the temperature and ventilation, drinking water, where to eat, medicalexamination, laundry and bathroom toilets and changing, organization of working timeGroups at particular risk:· Home-based worker.· Part-time workers are another group who may suffer from not being covered by safetyand health provisions.· The special position of women workers needs attention· Workers in the informal economy are much more likely than formal workers to beexposed to poor working environments, low safety and health standards, andenvironmental hazards, and to suffer poor health or injury as a result: the very natureof the informal economy makes it almost impossible for governments to collect thevital statistics needed to take appropriate remedial action, and, since much informalwork takes place in homes, inspectorates cannot investigate working conditions or getinformation and advice to the people who need it.T h a n a O m e r A b b k e r N a s r Page· Many children are still involved in hazardous work, although the numbers are falling:the worldwide total was estimated at 126 million in 2004, a considerable drop froman estimated 171 million in 2000, the decrease was particularly strong amongchildren aged 5 to 14, more boys than girls continue to work in dangerous jobs, about69 percent of boys work in agriculture, 22 per cent in services and 9 percent inindustry· “The ageing of the world workforce raises many concerns, including some relating tooccupational safety and health, the ILO has always been committed to the protectionof ageing workers, and has been active specifically in elaborating international labourstandards in invalidity, old age and survivors’ insurance, the most comprehensiveinstrument on this subject is the Older Workers Recommendation, 1980 (No. 162),which aims to protect the right of older workers to equality of treatment and stressesthe measures that should be implemented to protect their needs, including theidentification and elimination of occupational hazards and working conditions thathasten the ageing process and reduce their working capacity.”4· The accident rate of contract workers is on average twice that of permanent workers.Many employers seem to believe that by subcontracting certain tasks, theysubcontract their safety responsibilities· Drivers are particularly at risk, international estimates suggest that between 15 and 20percent of fatalities caused by road accidents are suffered by people in the course oftheir work, but these deaths are treated as road traffic accidents rather than workrelatedfatalities. 4*Conclusion:-· The regulations is comprehensive for some extent, but we need to expandregulations and interventions related to our own priorities like livestock keepers:There should be a clear legeslations to protect them science they have a high riskto muscluskeletal problems due to continous falling, zoonontic diseases, and skincancer.· Although there is a great efforts at the level of institutions there is no improvementof workers awareness due to lack of transparency, so we need to focus on theInformation System.· The majority of legislations and interventions areevidence based and coverimportant issues but we lack the sustainability of our interventions as a result of poormonitoring and evaluation