In idea in Europe in the 1840sIn idea in Europe in the 1840s

In this
summary , it will be discussed that main objectives which are related to
liberalism under the light of detailed explanation . The liberal term which has
a lot of meaning and it has been part of our life since the nineteenth century .
In the Latin language a group of free men refers to libra , which means neither
slave nor servant (serfs) . It had meaning like a person who is helpful to food
and drink , a person who cares about social attitudes or an open – minded
person in the past but day by day liberalism was identified with freedom and
choice . The term was used to show the political consensus but could not be
very clear until it was used in Spain . The term began to be used as a
political idea in Europe in the 1840s .

Liberalism
is a political ideology whose central theme is a commitment to the individual
and to the construction of the society in which individuals can satisfy their
interests or achieve fulfillment . Liberalism’s core values are individualism ,
tolerance , justice and freedom rationalism . It implies that every individual
has the same freedom as everyone else and that they live their lives at the
highest level of freedom in the forerunner of mankind’s intellectual possession
. However , and they support the primacy of meritocracy because even if the
individuals have equal moral values and are equally born on the grounds that
they benefit from equal opportunity and formal equality , liberals often
emphasize that they should be rewarded at different levels of  willingness and talent . The liberal democracy structures within the
framework of the libarel society consent and constitutionalism , which is
obliged to be characterized by diversity and pluralism , is put into a
political structure .

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Modern
liberalism and classical liberalism have very different characteristics . Classic
liberalism embraces a minimum of state belief that is limited by the provision
of local order and personal security . Classical liberals emphasize that human
beings must be responsible for themselves and must be self-sufficient to a
great extent ; and as long as it is possible , people should be responsible for
their own lives and conditions . From an economic point of view , classical
liberalism sees government intervention as both unnecessary and harmful, and
emphasizes that it must be a self-regulating market . Natural rights theories
and utilitarianism , which are part of liberalization and are seen in some
classical liberal ideas . Modern liberalism , sometimes referred to as
prosperity and social liberalism is that shows more gentle structure against
the state and modern liberalism arises from the idea that capitalism which does
not comply with the rules only produces new forms of injustice . Therefore , State
intervention may extend freedom by protecting individuals from social harm that
deteriorate their existence . While classical liberal liberty implies freedom
in the negative terms , modern liberal liberty associates freedom with self – development
and self-realization . It is a clear link between modern liberalism and social
democracy .

The
most powerful political ideology that shaped the western political tradition is
liberalism . Besides, some people see liberalism as industrialized western
ideology, and make this idea compatible with western meditacy . Liberalism is
the product of a collapse of feudalism which continued with the change of
market or capitalist society . Early liberalism reflected the aspirations of
the growing industrial middle class , and since then liberalism and capitalism
have been closely linked to each other . Liberalism in its original form is
actually a doctrine . Liberalism is in war against absolutism and feudal
privileges that advocate the Constitutional and later representative government
. In the nineteenth century classical liberalism praised the virtues of
laissez-faire capitalism in the form of economic liberalism and battled every
form of government intervention .  From
the end of the nineteenth century , however, social liberalism a feature of
modern liberalism is that was more positive on welfare reform and economic
intervention, arose . Ideology theorists such as Francis Fukuyama argued that
the twentieth century has resulted in the recent worldwide victory of
liberalism . This was supposed to be the foundation of economic organization ,
the collapse of all viable alternatives to market capitalism , in addition to
the basis of the so-called liberal democracy political organization .

The balance within liberalism comes
from topics such as individual freedom, diversity and reasoned debate . Liberalism
is not only an ideology but also a meta-ideology, which can be described as a
set of rules that expose the grounds under which political and ideological
debates are based . It shows that the priority in the principles of liberalism
is goodness . In other words , liberalism does not try to encourage or promote
any idea of what is good when people and groups try to determine the conditions
of good living as they describe it . Nevertheless , some criticism of liberalism has emerged in
various ways . Marxists argued that while defending capitalism liberalism tried
to legitimize unequal class power and thus formed the form of a bourgeois
ideology . Radical feminists point to the link between liberalism and
patriarchy ;  this takes the tendency of
the individual to build on the basis of a self-sufficient model , thus
promoting women as men . Society members defeat liberalism and ultimately
defeat themselves because they have not provided a moral foundation for social
order and collective effort, arguing that liberal society is a recipe for
unlimited egoism and greed .

 

Bu?ra Sarper Seçen

                                                                                                                             
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