In interactions or bonds to be made.In interactions or bonds to be made.

In a non-aqueous interior environment of a protein I would expect hydrophobic bonds or interaction between hydrophobic molecules. Hydrophobic molecules are non-polar, non-charged, and do not have a dipole moment. Most of these molecules are hydrocarbons that consist of long carbon chains that do not mix with water. When put in water they aggregate leading to the hydrophobic effect where water molecules form cages of hydrogen bonded pentagons around them. This is due to water unable to form hydrogen bonds with the non-polar molecules (Lodish, 2016).In aqueous surface environment of a protein, I would specifically expect hydrophilic interactions or bonds to be made. Hydrophilic molecules are polar or charged, soluble in water, and easily disseminated throughout a cell (Lodish, 2016).Lodish, H. Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman, 2016.Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. Section 1.3, Chemical Bonds in Biochemistry.Corden, Jeffrey L, and David Tollervey. 4. Cell Biology, Elsevier, 2017.Covalent bonds is when pairs of electrons between atoms are shared. This type of bond has the energy of 356kJmol which is high requiring a considerable amount of energy to break it. Double and triple covalent bond are even stronger (Berg, 2002). Van deer Waals interactions take place when adjacent atoms are close enough that their outer electron clouds touch, not overlap, resulting in nondirectional attraction. The energy required is significantly less than that of covalent bonds at 4kJmol (Corden). The geckos method of stickiness is via van dar Waals interactions between septal on their feet is more advantageous because it allows them to move faster. If they utilized covalent interactions, the speed at which they move would decrease due to the energy required to break and make these bonds. With van der Waals interaction, the geckos movement benefits from the rate and ease at which these interactions are being made.?A saturated fatty acid is where all the carbon-carbon bonds are single and not double nor triple. Unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond and those that have more are called polyunsaturated. A fatty acid that has a double bonded carbon-carbon, has two stereoisomeric configurations cis and trans. A cis configuration around each bond means that the functional groups will be on the same side of the double bond where as in trans, the groups will be on opposite sides. The problem with cis double bonds starts with the groups being on the same side causing a kink in the chain. These kinks do not allow the fatty acids to pack tightly and have lower melting points. Saturated fatty acids without a kink can pack tightly and thus have higher melting points remaining solids at room temperature (Lodish, 2016).All amino acids have an alpha carbon atom that is asymmetric and bonded to four different chemical groups. With this asymmetry, amino acids have two forms that mirror one another; these are the dextro and levo isomers. Our bodies were made to digest levo protein and dextro glucose but not dextro proteins. D-tryptophan cannot be interconverted to l-tryptophan without reconstructing a chemical bond which can affect the function of l-tryptophan (Lodish, 2016). .Helmenstine, Ph.D. Anne Marie. “Learn About the 3 Types of Intermolecular Forces.” ThoughtCo, 6 Nov. 2017.A dipole is seen in a polar bond where the bonded atoms have different electronegativities and there is an unequal sharing of electrons. The O-H bond is a great representation of this where the oxygen has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen has a partial positive charge. More electrons surround the oxygen due to its greater electro negativity. This bond has a dipole, a pair of equal but oppositely charged poles separated by distance (Lodish,2016). Intermolecular bonds are weaker than intramolecular bonds. The covalent bonds between atoms such as O-H in water are strong and can be seen as intramolecular. The dipole interactions between water molecules are weaker and seen as intermolecular (Helmenstine, 2017).?Phospholipids are more suitable due to their amphipathic quality. Their hydrophillic heads face the extracellular fluid as well as the cytosol, separating the two. The hydrophobic tails aggregate and face away from the aqueous areas. Phospholipids are ideal as building blocks of the membrane because they allow diffusion of molecules. Triacylglycerols are nonpolar and insoluble creating a hydrophobic membrane (Lodish, 2016).