In the 19th century, Slavery was justified using the biblical curse on Canaan, which was often misrepresented as a curse on his father Ham (from the book of Genesis).
Even the great philosopher Aristotle in his discussion of slavery asserted that the people of Greek are free by nature while the non-Greeks expressed as barbarians are the slave by nature. From this is clearly known, it’s in their nature to be more inclined to surrender to the anti-democratic government.
While Aristotle makes an annotation on slaves, he would seem to indicate physical basis for discrimination. He mentions that being most natural slaves are with those having strong bodies and slave souls means unintelligent, in the sense they are unfit for rule. He also obviously assert that the right breed of soul don’t always go together with their bodies.
Polygenist Christoph Meiners, for example, splits mankind into two divisions which he labeled the “beautiful White race” and the “ugly Black race”. He viewed only the white race as beautiful. He considered ugly races to be inferior and barbaric nature.
Today – aversive racism
Aversive racism is the latest form of racism, which can be considered embedded in social processes and structure, which is more tough to explore as well as remains challenging. This aversive racism is still undergoing subconsciously in many countries where even racism has become taboo too.
Such racism behavior happens without the conscious awareness towards an attitude or object. Such implicit attitudes are not consciously identified. It may be because of traces of past experience that brings favorable or unfavorable feeling, thought, feelings or actions that have an influence on the behavior of which the individual may not be aware of.
Therefore, such racism can influence the processing of Mind when they are subjected to expose to faces of different colors. Such exposure can influence the minds of individuals and they can cause subconscious racism in the behavior of individuals towards other people or even towards object or attitude
In many parts of the world, people were refused civil rights in their own countries itself, only because of their race or national descent.
Therefore, subconscious racism can influence our visual processing and how our minds work when we are subliminally exposed to faces of different colors. Such exposures influence our minds and they can cause subconscious racism in our behavior towards other people or even towards objects.
Even today the Contemporary authors like Gladwell use subtle unstated stereotypes in his work, ‘The Tipping Point’, that a tactic President Obama called ‘dog whistle racism’.
Thus, racist thoughts and actions can arise from stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware of.
Recent research has shown that individuals who consciously claim to reject racism may still exhibit race-based subconscious biases in their decision-making processes. Being this subconscious racial biases does not rightfully fall under the definition of racism and may be because of commonly less decided, not being express, conscious or deliberate, hence their impact is similar to the racism patterns.
Thus today the aversive racism is found in every level of societal structure implicitly, even without their conscious. This becomes the true challenge to eradicate racism in well-developed society today.
Reverse racism mean the concept of denial of rights and privileges of the dominant group people over the ethnic minority group people.1 This term has been coined to describe situations where typically advantaged people are relegated to inferior positions or denied social opportunities to benefit racial minorities. However, scholars argue that a critical component of racism is the broad exercise of authority and power and that isolated instances of favoring the disadvantaged over the privileged cannot be seen as constituting racism.2
1 Shaefar, Richard T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE pp. 1118-189.