Infrastructure pp. 22-23, which would you assign

 Infrastructure -Infrastructure
personnel (i.e., military personnel, volunteers, etc.) were responsible for
post-disaster rehabilitation.  They
cleared debris from the roads, streets, and airport landings that occurred
during the initial earthquake and its aftershocks.  They also assessed and demolished unstable
structures and helped with the reconstruction of buildings, bridges, and roads. Medical -Medical
personnel (i.e., paramedics, doctors, etc.) from the local, regional, or
national government, military, non-profit organizations and volunteers were
responsible for assisting local victims who were wounded during the earthquake disaster
and those that became ill or wounded post-disaster during humanitarian relief
efforts.  They helped ensure food,
medication, and water were safe for human consumption and disease was
controlled / quarantined to avoid an epidemic outbreak.  In addition, they were also responsible for
identifying and processing the remains of casualties recovered during relief
efforts and ensuring critical personnel with life threatening injuries were
evacuated for appropriate medical treatment. 
 Operations -Operations
personnel (i.e., military personnel, non-profit organizations, etc.) were
responsible for emergency management operations.  They coordinated, collaborated, and provided
oversight for post-disaster humanitarian operations.  They also provided guidance and disseminated
public information regarding ongoing disaster relief efforts.   Security -Security
personnel (i.e., military personnel) had a primary responsibility to secure the
area, protecting local victims and creating safe working conditions for
post-disaster humanitarian operations. 
They provided management, discipline, and organization to ensure all
personnel and scarce resources (such as food, water, medicine, and funds) were
protected and secure.  They were also
peacekeepers, mediating conflict and calming personnel during periods of
uncertainty. Resources & Assets -Logistics
personnel (i.e., military personnel, non-profit organizations, volunteers,
etc.) were responsible for the procurement and transportation of goods and
funds.  They also received and tracked
donations and provided asset management for all resources received during the
post-disaster humanitarian operations.   Transport -Transportation
personnel (i.e., military personnel, non-profit organizations, volunteers,
etc.) were responsible for evacuating victims and transporting food and other
vital supplies to and from the disaster area. 
  2.  Of the organizations involved in the crisis
and those included on pp. 22-23, which would you assign to each section from
Question 1? Explain why you chose that organization.Infrastructure -The
organizations I would assign to the Infrastructure section would be the Army’s
Third Division and Red Cross / International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC)
because they have manpower and equipment to quickly assess damages to both
public and structural infrastructures; and begin reconstructing the disaster
area with more resilient structures. Medical -The
organizations that I would assign to the Medical section would be the Red Cross
/ IFRC because they are experienced in disaster preparedness and emergency
response; and could provide rapid medical care and supplies to victims in the
community. Operations -The
organizations that I would assign to the Operations section would be Red Cross
/ IFRC because they had the most experience and exposure in disaster
management; and had the capabilities to perform search and rescue operations,
provide medical care, distribute food and water amidst other relief supplies, and
assist with the rehabilitation of buildings and communications. Security -The
organization I would assign to the Security section would be the Army’s Third
Division because they had the manpower, equipment, and training to readily deploy
and provide protection; restoring law and good public order in the community.  Resources & Assets -The
organization I would assign to the Resources & Assets section would be RSS
/ Red Cross / IFRC because they had the capabilities to effectively manage and
distribute food, water, and other supplies needed in the community. Transport -The
organizations I would assign to the Transportation section would be the Air
Force and other civilian organizations that have air capabilities to support search
and rescue operations as well as logistics support for the prompt delivery of
relief supplies. 3.  List the efforts of the Red Cross/IFRC and
the RSS. Explain how one was more effective than the other, and how you would
prevent their duplication of efforts. 1.      Red
Cross / IFRC – a.       Facilitated
the initial assessment of the earthquake’s impactb.      Provided
budgetary aid and mobilized resources from other countriesc.       Cleared
roads, streets, and airports; demolishing unsafe structures using heavy
machinery and excavatorsd.      Provided
personnel for emergency responsee.       Obtained
donations from local and international donors; and tracked items until they
reached the victimsf.       Operated
warehouses and distributed supplies  2.      RSS
– a.       Provided
a fraction of their budget for emergency aid b.      Provided
personnel for emergency response c.       Obtained
donations from local donorsIn comparison, the Red Cross / IFRS was more effective
than the RSS because they had several years of experience with disaster
management amidst readily available personnel and resources; whereas, the RSS
only had experience with managing policies and donations of seized goods.  To avoid duplicate efforts, the RSS could
manage receiving the donations and the Red Cross / IFRS could use their
personnel and resources to distribute them to the respective areas in need
using their elaborate tracking method.4.  Re-read the chapter and make a list of
problems as they arise. How would you expect that your organizations assigned
above would handle those problems effectively?1.      The
main disaster management resources were destroyed. a.       Military
personnel would assume security responsibilities and secure the area; providing
protection for victims, securing resources, and conducting search and rescue
operations.b.      In
the future, partnerships with local, regional, and national committees should
be developed and maintained to provide emergency management operations in the
event that the local support is diminished. 
 2.      Telecommunications
were temporarily disabled but partially restored.   a.       Military
personnel would be able to restore some communication using their communication
personnel to perform maintenance, operations, installation, and repair of the
temporarily disabled equipment.b.      In
the future, the government should consider cell phones, satellite phones, and
radios be stored in a structure built to withstand seismic movements.

3.      The
roads were impaired and radio / television signals were out of service.  a.       Military
personnel and other organizations / volunteers would have the manpower and
equipment to assist with clearing debris from and rehabilitating the roads to
restore traffic to an operational state.b.      In
the future, the government should consider building infrastructure to withstand
seismic movements in high risk areas.

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4.      The
airport was obstructed and partly ruined.  a.       Military
personnel amidst others would have the manpower and equipment to assist with
clearing the debris from the airport and rehabilitate the destroyed structure
by assessing the damage and performing necessary repairs.

5.      The
local and regional emergency response personnel (if existing) were frail. a.       The
National Disaster System should establish and maintain partnerships with local,
regional, and national governments to assist with disaster preparedness and
emergency management.  With a proper
contingency plan, they could anticipate disasters and develop a plan to
mitigate the impact on the community; which could save lives and strengthen
recovery efforts during disasters. 6.      The
high probability of seismic movements was dismissed. a.       The
local, regional, and national government should not dismiss the risk of seismic
hazard when presented with highly probable scientific evidence.

7.      The
majority of infrastructure was built on unstable terrain. a.       The
government should consider building earthquake resilient structures that meet
specific building code and ensure it’s enforced to minimize damage, injuries
and causalities.

8.      The
government had no defined procedures on how to respond.  a.       The
National Disaster Management Office should document lessons learned to develop
protocols to effectively and efficiently coordinate and oversee humanitarian
operations. 9.      There
was a flood of volunteers. a.       The
Unified Command Post (PMU) or operations center should determine which
organization will manage and oversee volunteers; ensuring they do not hinder
relief efforts.  Ideally, volunteers with
experience in disaster preparedness and/or emergency management would be best
suited.     b.      The
Army’s Third Division could restrict the disaster area to select personnel to
avoid the interference of volunteers with certain relief efforts.

10.  Volunteers
did not know the quality of food and they did not have any procedure to
distribute in an equitable manner.  a.       Supplies
(food and water) should not be distributed to victims until they’ve passed a
quality review and it has been determined that it is safe for human
consumption.  This will greatly reduce
the risk of disease after the disaster.

b.      Organizations
should develop a protocol for the equitable distribution of scarce
resources. 

11.  The
RSS assumed coordination responsibilities, but they lacked knowledge. a.       The
government should determine which organization would be best suited to
coordinate and communicate between organizations based on experience in
disaster preparedness and emergency situations.

12.  Donations
arrived in subpar condition and past their expiration date.  a.       Organizations
should ensure that supplies are vetted before they are transported to the
disaster location or a storage facility awaiting transport.

13.  Roads
were impassable or heavily impaired. a.       Military
personnel and other organizations / volunteers would have the manpower and
equipment to assist with clearing debris from and rehabilitating the roads to
restore traffic to an operational state. 14.  Supplies
bottlenecked because there was no coordination regarding night time operations
at the airfield or who’d bear responsibility for the fuel expenses. a.       The
National Disaster Management Office should develop a partnership with the Air
Force defining the support they may need during a disaster or emergency
situation.      

15.   Ambulances from neighboring cities hindered
traffic. a.       The
Army’s Third Division could restrict the disaster area to select personnel to
avoid the interference of volunteers with certain relief efforts.

16.   Most shipments were tracked manually. a.       A
more efficient tracking and tracing method should be explored by all
organizations. 

17.  The
warehouses were managed by various organizations. a.       Warehouse
operations should have been consolidated under one organization to easily
manage the processing, storage, and distribution of supplies. 

18.  The
absence of accurate information and supplies created chaos.  a.       The
PMU should have communicated regular issues and status of supplies to local
personnel on a reoccurring basis to reassure the community.

19.    Public order was ruined due to erroneous
information regarding distribution of supplies. a.       A
public affairs specialist should be identified to disseminate relevant facts
and information regarding the safety, security, and well-being of victims. 20.  Internal
controls for supplies and distribution were non-existent. a.      
The
National Disaster Management Office should have designated an organization to
oversee supplies / funds and the distribution thereof, to ensure proper
accountability. 

 

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