Instead of using a nonrenewable energy, like fossil fuels, and aiding global warming, different sources of renewable energy can be used, such as choosing a utility company that uses at least half of its power from sources like solar or wind. The sun’s energy can be captured directly, and different solar energy technologies, like photovoltaics, are used to convert the sun’s light and energy into heat, hot water, and electricity. Winds form from uneven heating and cooling of the atmosphere by the sun, and can be captured by turbines and transferred into electricity. One way to conserve a natural resource, water, is to keep track of water footprint, which is the amount of freshwater that is used in producing or supply of goods and services utilized by an individual or group. Conserving water also reduces carbon pollution as well, since it takes up a lot of energy to pump, heat, and treat water; sustainable habits like taking shorter showers and turning off tap water when not being used should always be considered.Deforestation could be reduced by simple activities such as planting more trees, not printing and going paperless, and not using firewood to heat up home, since it takes hours for using firewood but years to grow trees. Communication with peers and family is also important in order to spread awareness about environmental issues and how we can do small things at home that can have a large impact on earth, especially since there are already too many people that are not aware or participating in sustainable practices. Overall, overpopulation is a major global issue, and other ways it can be reduced is improving health and education of birth control options to women, especially in developing nations, and also ensuring access to voluntary family services, women may choose to limit family size. Instead of using toxic pesticides, there are non-toxic insecticide alternatives that can be used. Plants like marigolds and feverfew can be planted around vegetables or flower gardens. Pungent basil and sage also can repel variety of insects; chives and nasturtium keep aphids off rose bushes; borage keep worms out of tomatoes; rosemary keep mosquitoes away. A method of using strips of aluminum foil under vegetables can reflect light and confuse insects while also helping vegetables grow. To minimize eutrophication, catchment management can be a long term solution; protecting the soils from erosion and maintaining vegetation cover within a catchment leads to a better water quality as less nutrients and sediments will be able to enter waterways. Some ways to reduce nutrient load of a water body include avoiding excessive use of fertilizers and manures on agriculture land within the catchment (only use on spots that are needed) and treating sewage in order to remove nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They can also be prevented from entering a waterway by protecting the strip of land adjacent to the water body; the strip of land is known as the riparian zone and vegetation within the riparian zone is known as riparian vegetation; this is important for maintaining and protecting water quality and acts as a buffer zone, filters runoff and prevents pollutants from enter the water body, prevents river bank erosion, and shades the water (reduces available light and keeps water temperatures lower so algal growth can be reduced). Management practices to reduce CH4 emissions from rice paddies can be mid-season drainage and using alternative fertilizers. Switching to more heat tolerant rice cultivars and adjusting sowing dates, yield declines due to temperature increase can be prevented, and as a result reduce the effect of warming on methane emissions per yield.In order to fight against the loss of arable land, some solutions could be to increase local food productions by turning available spaces, like backyards, into gardens for growing crops. Different farming and industrial techniques that could also be used and will put less demand on local land and resource use, such as arid aquaculture for production of fish and crustaceans; a bonus would be that it could help improve nutrition through diet diversification. A few ways to reduce light pollution in cities are to install motion sensitive lighting. That way, if an area is illuminated in advanced, it will reduce the amount of wasted light emitted. Bulbs should also be covered and light faced downwards, where it is illuminating the ground instead of the sky. Different light bulbs, such as warm-white lighting, should give off lower watt lighting on demand.Preventing urban water pollution should start with properly recycling or disposing of pollutants before they cause contamination; there also needs to be better education on proper ways to dispose waste. A way to get the message across is to show where the waste goes and how it can cause issues with watersheds. A solution to reduce stormwater runoff can be utilizing green infrastructure, which works by slowing down the runoff, spread it out over land, and slowly soaking it into ground or in other ways that can be reused onsite. This is to remove pollutants from runoff, by allowing plants to filter out pollutants as water infiltrates into the ground; other infrastructure techniques include rain barrels (water tank used to collect and store rainwater runoff, typically from rooftops via pipes.), rain gardens ( a planted depression or a hole that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas the opportunity to be absorbed., and pervious pavement. To protect stormwater runoff from reaching water, a buffer strip of vegetation can also be used along the shoreline to filter sediments and nutrients.