INTRODUCTION is necessary for surgeon [1],[2]. LimitedINTRODUCTION is necessary for surgeon [1],[2]. Limited

INTRODUCTION

The surgical robot such
as the Da Vinci surgical system contains the advantages such as reduces chances
of infection, less pain, shorter hospital stay and lower health care costs.
Additionally these robotic systems improve adroitness, reduce or eliminate the
surgeon’s tremor and surgeon fatigue. However, there are also some
disadvantages such as their initial cost, lack of accurate haptic feedback to
the surgeon and special training is necessary for surgeon 1,2.

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Limited view of
surgical workspace, dexterity, lack of haptic feedback, difficulties in
handling of surgical tools are few challenges associated with MIS (Minimally
invasive surgery). But with robotic surgical assistants, these limitations can
be resolved. Popularity of these robots is due to the ability of these robots
to improve efficiency, reducing or eliminating surgeon’s tremors and motion scalability
5. A study by Wagner et al., showed that the performance can be greatly
improved with force feedback. Conventionally, for palpation of tissues haptic
feedback is used as a diagnosis tool to figure out , if a tissue is normal or
not. Haptic technology has shown the potential to restore tangibility to human
computer interaction. By providing auxiliary channels several specialized tasks
were transformed by using haptic feedback 7.

In last few years
various general, urologic and cardiac surgical procedures were performed with
robotic surgical systems. Various research works are going on so that this
problem of haptic feedback can be resolved by providing the physicians with
feedback that can show the amount of force applied by the robot, and this can
be done by using haptic sensors in the instruments used by surgical robot. By
accomplishing this number of exciting scientific and clinical opportunities
arise8. This lack of haptic feedback somewhat limits the procedures that can
be done robotically, as surgeons cannot feel how hard they are pulling a suture
or tactilely localize occlusions within tissue9,10,11,12.