Introduction were issued to every new PoliceIntroduction were issued to every new Police


In this essay
I will describe the primary roles and responsibilities of the Police Service
and the Prison Service, these both are two main agencies within the Criminal
Justice System. I will specifically look into the roles and responsibilities of
the Police Service and the Prison Service and how they have evolved over time.

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I will then look into both the Police and the Prison Services statements of
purpose, and optically canvass how these outline the roles and responsibilities
of the two agencies.


The Police Service

The Police
Service is the most visible and recognisable institution in the United Kingdom.

Sir Robert Peel became the Home Secretary in 1822 and in 1829, he established
the first full-time professional Police Force in England and Wales. Research
from Crime Prevention (2017) states that Sir Robert Peel engendered ‘General
Instructions’ these were issued to every new Police Officer from 1829 onwards.

Contained within the document were nine principles, and accentuate the purpose,
role and responsibilities of the Police, which are still valid to this day. Hesketh,
Ivy and Smith (2014) emphasise how the principles are often referred to as the
substructure of ‘Modern Police’. The Police Service emerged in the 1960’s and
was described by Newburn (2013) as a 24-hour service, which responds to those
in need. Critchley (1979) stated that the purport of the Police was to bring
security without which
civilisation is infeasible.


The role of
the Police Service according to the Statement of Common Purpose and Values for
the Police (House of Commons, 2008) was adopted by the service in 1990, and
fundamentally imitates the Peelian Principles. The definition provided
articulates that the role of the Police essentially is to endorse the law both
justly and firmly, avert malefaction, pursue and command equity to those who
transgress the law, keep the Queen’s peace, protect, support and reassure the
community and to be optically discerned to do all the above with integrity,
honesty and sound judgement (Joyce, 2017).


of the Police are highlighted and made clear to all applicants on a Job Profile
upon applying to be a Police Officer. Job profiles for the Police list numerous
responsibilities, including providing a visible presence to deter crime,
interviewing suspects, conducting arrests and attending and presenting evidence
in courts and at alternative hearings when indispensable (,
2016;, 2017;, 2017).


The Police
Services bear a hierarchical structure; Each Police Officer in the United
Kingdom is ranked, the rank of a Police Officer determines their amount of
puissance and consequently their responsibilities. For example, a Police
Constable, the lowest rank, is the officer whom responds to 999 calls,
investigate volume crime or take initial action at critical incidents. Whereas
a Police Inspector has the responsibility of overseeing all officers when on
obligation, oversees replications to critical incidents and has the
responsibility of determining when a more senior or a specialist officer is
required (, 2017). Despite this, although Police Officers are
provided with specific responsibilities, they all do share some. All Police
Officers, no matter of their rank have the responsibility’s of alleviating crime
and the fear of it by reassuring the community, providing evidence in court or at
alternative hearings when and if necessary and to promote deference for all
people in cognation to their race, diversity and human rights and to do all
with sound judgement (Police Foundation, 1996; Police National Legal Database,


The Prison Service

The purposes of the Prison Service according to Grimwood et al. (2012) are often referred to as
“incapacitation, punishment, retribution, deterrence and rehabilitation”
(Grimwood, Berman and Maruna, 2012, p.1). The Criminal Justice Act 2003
(, 2017) reveals that one of the purposes of prison is to
reduce crime and prevent reoffending. According to the House of Commons (2009)
the Prison Services statement of purpose states that Her Majesty’s Prison
Service accommodates society by keeping in custody individuals whom have
committed a malefaction. The obligation of the Prison Service is to look after
those individuals with care and humanity and rehabilitate them to lead
law-abiding lives.


The Prison Reform Trust (2017) states that England and Wales has the
largest imprisonment rate in Western Europe, the Prison population has risen by
82% in the last 30 years. According to Newburn (2017) there are currently just under
86,000 people in Britain’s prisons. The average cost to detain one prisoner per
year is £22,933 (, 2017). Statistics provided by the Ministry of Justice,
reveal that around 50% of all crimes are committed by reoffenders, thus
estimated to cost the taxpayer from £9.5 to £13 billion per annum (,
2015). The Prison Reform Trust (2017) exposes that proximately 8000 people
serving a sentence of less that 12 months reoffended and were recalled back to
custody in the year to December 2016. Research conducted by Joyce et al. (2017), states that in 2010, the
Prime Minister, David Cameron, requested a ‘rehabilitation revolution’.

Rehabilitation involves programmes, which aim to address a criminal’s future
behaviour, by supplying them with both treatment and educational programmes.

Improving prisoners’ employment opportunities is a valuable factor in breaking
the cycle of reoffending, as it will prompt them to lead law-abiding lives.

Statistics by HM Prison Service (2002) show us that 47% of prisoners are
estimated to have no academic qualifications, hence why educational programmes
are vital to boost employment prospects upon release. Rehabilitation does reduce crime,
however this only works for some, various approaches are congruous for
different people. (2016) reveals it costs approximately £20,000 to train a
Prison Officer. Prison Officers have many roles and responsibilities to consummate.

Newburn (2017) articulates how Police Officers are generally contracted a
39-hour week, Police Officers normally work a shift pattern in order to cover
the circadian nature of the job, and consequently have a fairly involute
working arrangement. Every day Prison Officers are expected to balance the
competing dictations of rehabilitation, security and the decency agenda, in a
system under constant pressure (The House of Commons, 2009). Prison Officers
have to endeavour and control some of the most perilous and vulnerably
susceptible people in society. (2016) reveals that Prison Officers
have a wide range of roles and responsibilities, they have to consummate the
role of an edifier, trainer, welfare officer, enforcer and supervisor. An
integral part of a Prison Officers role according to the House of Commons
(2009) is to obviate confrontations from arising between inmates, which could
lead to violence, and defusing those that have are ineluctably foreordained,
thus requiring teamwork and good judgement. The Home of Commons (2009) described
how the best Prison Officers have a wide set of skills, qualities and
abilities, which the Home of Commons (2009) referred to as ‘Jail Craft’ skills,
qualities and abilities. Prison Officers are also required to work with other
agencies in a multi-disciplinary approach in order to address offending
comportment, and rehabilitate. The Prison Service has a vast set of guidelines
regarding the roles and responsibilities. The roles and responsibilities of the
Police Service are forever evolving, due to society, laws and changes in the
government however, the core purposes of the Prison Service still remain.