It my article search by connecting wordsIt my article search by connecting words

It is important that students use
databases that would enable them to gather the information they need to
complete their research project. While there are many articles available in the
Argosy University Library online, it is important to differentiate articles
that are empirical and non-empirical. By so doing, students would be able to
locate articles that are more credible and contain valuable information about
their research project. I
searched the Academic Search Complete database that is affiliated with Ebsco.
This database has different articles on African-American women business
owners.  To obtain the desired articles,
I set the parameters for articles that are not more than five years old. I also
selected only articles that were full-text and peer-reviewed. Another database
that I searched was ProQuest. ProQuest has different articles including
dissertation on mentoring and women business owners. I chose the databases
because they contain information that are related to my research topic.
Boolean logic was implemented in my article search by connecting words in this
manner: Mentoring and African-American
women, Mentoring and business owners, and African American business owners not Caucasian women. I also used
Boolean logic in this manner: Mentoring business owners (title) AND Jones and
Jackson (author) AND 2016 (year).


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RQ 1. Is there a statistically
significant relationship between
mentoring and the performance level of African-American female employees?

Ho: There is no statistically significant relationship between mentoring and the
performance level of
African-American female employees.

Ha: There is a statistically significant relationship between mentoring and the
performance level of
African-American female employees.


Laukhauf and Malone (2015) conducted a qualitative study
to examine whether mentoring improve the lives of women in a business
environment. The total number of participants who were used in the study was
twenty. The participants were women entrepreneur of different businesses. The
results suggest that mentoring improve the lives of the participants who were
involved in this study. The results further show that women consider mentoring
to be a useful tool during the early stage of their business. The participants
noted that they receive mentoring from other professionals, families, friends,
and other acquaintances. Because women were able to learn by examples, they
were able to assimilate information that enabled them to improve their work
performance.  Through mentoring, women
can gain a better understanding of networking opportunities, leadership skills,
and self-confidence.

Collins et al. (2014) conducted a qualitative study to
investigate how mentoring improves academic womens’ careers. Eight participants
who work in academia were used for this study and the participants belong to
the Women’s Group Meeting Program in the university they work for. The results
suggest that women had some challenges balancing work and their personal life
due to their research responsibilities they have with their employer.
Nevertheless, women show appreciation for working in a diverse work environment
where most of them were native of countries in Europe. Because women were able
to identify challenges during their mentoring session that prevented them from
moving forward, they were able to identify solutions to the problems. The
results also show that women were able to gain a better sense of themselves and
what they could handle at work. The peer group mentoring improves women work
performance and open doors of opportunity that led to career advancement within
their organization.  Peer grouping
mentoring become an effective tool in assisting women with academic career

Norman (2012) conducted a qualitative study to explore
effective mentoring strategies that could improve employees career development.
The participants used in the study were six female senior national coaches. The
result suggests that one of the strategies that were used to develop
participants’ careers was ensuring that they understand that coaching in the
national level also provide encouragement to women and those who were
interested in becoming coaches.  The
results also that women who were interested in becoming coaches felt they
needed to be provided with opportunities that would enable them to gain
experiences and practice at a higher level in their work environment. To
advance and develop employees’ skills, management   must be open to mentoring from young and
older employees.

Blood et al. (2012) conducted a quantitative study to
investigate the impact of mentoring on women in academics.  The participants who were used in the study
were one thousand one hundred and seventy-nine women, and they were from
Harvard Medical School. The results suggest that most faculty women do not have
mentors and those who had mentors were not satisfied with the information they
received from their mentoring sessions. The results also show that mentors do
not discuss with their mentors the importance of setting career goals. The
results further show that mentees need mentoring who can educate them about
publishing and other areas in their professional lives. Leaders and managers of
organizations should facilitate and enhance mentoring efforts by discussing how
mentoring can positively affect employees’ research focus, academic ranks, and
their job performance.

Dow (2014) conducted a qualitative study to examine the
effect of mentoring on women careers. The total number of participants in the
study was eight. The result suggests that women who serve as mentors noted that
they would like to learn new strategy that would enable them to be effective
mentors to women. The results also show that mentors are interested in learning
socialization programs and networking that would teach them new strategies that
would enable them to be effective as mentors. Managerial leaders should
carefully assess how well the present socialization programs provide not only
technical training, but also how feedback is given to new comers. The results
also show that generational differences can have a negative influence on
mentoring. The race for mentors and mentees were also noted as a factor that
can help develop eh mentoring relationship between two both parties. 

Lim et al. (2015) studied the role of
mentoring with African-American accountants to contribute to the body of
knowledge on mentoring as a potential tool that can be used in the accounting
profession. The researchers tested whether African-American women have few
mentoring benefits than their male counterparts. The researchers tested the
impact of the quantity of benefits mentors provided on job positions. The
results from this study suggest that African-American women are less likely to
have beneficial mentors than their male counterparts. The results also show
that having formal mentor and having greater number of beneficial mentors have
positive impact on women job positions.

Newkirk and Cooper (2013) noted that
effective leadership is important in all organizations, and the Baptist Church
is not exempted. Strong spiritualism can make a difference in the life of women
leaders and members. A growing number of African-American women are showing interest
in the Baptist Church Ministry, but the preparation, training, and mentoring
are often insufficient.  Ten
African-American women were interviewed to capture their background,
educations, supports and roles as Baptist minister preacher, counselor, and
leaders in the church. The result suggests that few ministers were willingly to
serve as mentors. Women ministers were found to be self-motivated and
personally inspired.  The results of the
study also   include role analysis of
women ministers as teachers, preachers, counselors, and as mentors
themselves.  The study also shows that in
some cases, women were not supporting other women in the Baptist church.    Hence, it is difficult to be a woman
minister, and it is complicated even more when the minister is an
African-American woman.

Gardner, Barrett, and
Pearson (2014) explored the lived experiences of successful African-American
student affairs administrators at predominantly white institutions and factors
that served as enablers and barriers to their careers success.  The researchers identified three constructs:
adjustment issues, institutional factors, and care dynamics. A total of 14
participants were used for the study. The participants were African-American
student affairs administrator who were males and females.  The result shows the importance of mentoring
relationship, healthy self-image and motivation and social network and family
support. Adjustment issues/barriers included perception of prejudice and feeling
of separateness and compensation /work conditions and resources. The
institutional factor barrier was discrimination