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Jason Giambi is currently 47 years old and is a retired professional baseball player (Verducci et al., 2015). Jason Giambi was drafted to the Oakland Athletics in 1992 but did not debut until 1995 (Verducci et al., 2015). Giambi played for the Athletics until 2001 and then was drafted to the New York Yankees, where he played for 7 years (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). Giambi was then traded back to the Athletics for one year, then played for the Colorado Rockies for four years, and finished his career having two years with the Cleveland Indians (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). Jason Giambi was a first baseman, outfielder, and designated hitter and played professional baseball for 20 seasons (Verducci et al., 2015). In his career, Giambi also publically admitted to using performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) during his beginning time with the Yankees (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). Giambi was indicted to testify to a grand jury in 2003 regarding a federal investigation against the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative (BALCO) (Verducci et al., 2015). Prior to his testimony, Giambi denied use of PEDs and it was not until his testimony was leaked that he admitted he had used them (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). Giambi admitted to using human growth hormone and testosterone in the 2003 season with the Yankees and also admitted to using undetectable steroids called “the clear” and “the cream” two years prior (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). Human growth hormone is an injectable drug that is used to improve and build muscle strength as well as improve the connective strength of connective tissue (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). “The clear” is also known as THG (tetrahydrogesterone) used as a performance enhancing drug to increase muscle mass, have a faster recovery, increase strength, and have reduced catabolism (Smi, 2016). “The cream” is a mixture of 2testosterone and epitestosterone is used as a performance enhancing drug to accelerate recovery and mask doping (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). While PEDs may have helped is career, they may have also affected his health. In 2004, one year after Giambi claimed he was no longer taking PEDs, he missed over 50 games due to a benign pituitary gland tumor (Verducci et al., 2015). Certain PEDs have been shown to contribute and exacerbate pituitary tumors (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). PEDs may have directly caused health issues for Giambi, resulting in him missing so many games.Giambi claimed that he did not believe that PEDs affected his career and stated they were of little help (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). Over his 20-year career, Giambi had 440 home runs (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). From 1995-1999 Giambi averaged 21.2 home runs per year and from 2000-2004 averaged 40.75 home runs per year (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). It was in the 2000s that Giambi admitted to taking PEDs and he nearly doubled his home run number. After 2004 when he reportedly stopped taking PEDs, Giambi’s number of homeruns also fell. While the average number of homeruns increased when he was taking PEDs, there was little change in his batting average. In 1995-99 his batting average was 0.290 and in 2000-04 it was 0.309. The time after he reported that he was no longer taking PEDs (2005-14), his batting average dropped to 0.235, but during this time he had injuries and did not play as many games (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). Since Giambi admitted to starting to take steroids when he was signed for the Yankees, further data should be evaluated to see where he his home runs occurred due to Yankee Stadium’s short right porch (Verducci et al., 2015). Giambi stated that he obtained the drugs from his trainer Greg Anderson, who also trained Barry Bonds (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). Part of the motivation for Giambi’s use of PEDs was because of the success of Barry Bonds and the length of his career (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). Also, perhaps motivating Giambi to use PEDs were financial incentives. When Giambi signed to the Yankees, he signed a seven-year deal of $120 million (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). During the time where he admitted to taking PEDs, he was named as an all-star from 2000-03 (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). Additionally, during these times, he was a finalist for MVP in the league (Jason Giambi Stats, n.d.). Despite saying that he did not see a difference in his career from taking PEDs, when asked if he would still take them if the public did not know he stated “…Maybe, yes, no, I don’t know,” (Fainaru-Wada et al., 2004). This implies that he actually did believe that the PEDs were helping him, and he may have continued use for more fortune and fame.