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virtue:  The convention
of right yearning or the nature to make right choices. It relates to the
quality of a said individual who searches for real goods in an ethically
accurate way. Developed as the direct result of convention, not happening
naturally. Overall moral virtue is a thing that must be
learned through the act of repetition, instruction, knowledge, support, and
good habits. According to moral virtue, the actions we as individuals do
are strictly voluntary and the result of choice. Aristotle showed us that moral
virtue is the character to act the proper way and as the median between the
concepts of absence and surplus.


method: The oldest and most powerful way of teaching that
shines a light on the ideas of critical
thinking. The focus is on giving students questions, not answers as a way to finding the continuous truth. Socrates
would ask recurrent questions until an inconsistency was found to get to the
main norms. The structure of this method when focused on the exception
technique involves focusing on a common-sense statement, finding an omission to
statement, reject the statement if the omission
is found, the person asked alters the statement to account for the omission,
and then the process is repeated over again until a statement cannot be
reversed. The overall focus of this method is on ethical analysis that relates
to how we should live in the eyes of the knowledge of justice, virtue, beauty,
happiness, and individuals own character.

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Republic: Book written by Plato around 380 BCE that is a very
well-written influential piece of work. This philosophical dialogue deals with
the makeup and assembly of the ideal state. The point of this dialogue is to
determine what makes up justice in each state, whether an idea of justice can
be determined by those individuals in each state at that time, and how justice
may be achieved in that given state. The conversation is centered around the
question of what is justice, questions of facts, and questions of procedure.
Overall the dialogue argues about the procedure for having a good life. The
goal of this dialogue is to establish
philosophically the ideal state. The Socratic method is what Plato used as the
basis and foundation for writing this book. 


son of Aristotle, as well as the name of Aristotle’s father. The son was from Stagira, a philosopher,
and a student of Theophrastus. The book called Nicomachean Ethics was named
after him.


of goods:  An
individual’s actions that are intended for some good, but some goods are
secondary to others. According to Aristotle, goods and pleasures are confused.
Overall this term means unalike stages or instructions of goods. Example of
this would be volunteering with the main goal in mind of helping the sick
versus working with the main goal in mind of striking it rich.


goods: The things we should yearn for even though we may or
may not really want them. According to Aristotle, these need to be the focus of
all moral activities. The categories associated with real goods consists of
bodily goods, goods needed for livelihood, and social goods. Bodily goods
consist of food, shelter, and health. Goods needed for livelihood consist of
wealth just enough to live decently, pleasure, and knowledge. Social goods
consist of liberty, friends or loved ones, and civil peace.


goods: These goods are pursued
by several people and they fall into the
category of either being innocuous or noxious. Innocuous goods are wanted in
moderation and they do not hinder in the quest for
real goods. Examples of these would be a love for sweets, good music, and fine
wine. Noxious goods are those that treat real or apparent goods as ends in
themselves. Examples of these include wealth, fame, and power. Overall apparent
goods are things that we want but do not
necessarily need.   


philosophy of serenity, tranquility, and impassiveness to suffering. It teaches
the growth of self-control and courage as a way of overcoming negative
emotions. This philosophy makes it known that virtue is happiness and judgment need
to be based on how we act, rather than what we say. We have no control and
cannot depend on experiences, only on ourselves and the replies.


Pleasure is viewed as the superior virtue. The belief that pleasure is the most
valuable good in life. The pleasure of
the entire mind, not just the senses is known to be the most valuable good. The
term is all about the dedication and time spent in relation to the search for


hedonism: Pleasure is viewed as the physical fulfillment of the senses.  Having instantaneous pleasure is good all by
itself and the action that does not bring
pleasure are viewed as immoral.


virtues: The four principal moral virtues, which include
prudence, justice, courage, and temperance. Prudence deals with the ability to
allow us to judge the proper way of what is right and wrong in any situation
that may come. Justice deals with the will and has a direct correlation to the
idea of rights. Courage gives us the ability to overcome fear and to remain
focused in our will in the face of hindrances, but it is always logical and
practical. Temperance is the hindrance when it comes to our wants.


2. Moral virtue makes a reference to the fact that our
actions are voluntary and they are the result of us making a choice. Moral
virtue is a thing that can only be learned through the act of repetition,
instruction, knowledge, support, and good habits. To gain this, we must have
the moral intent to want to do good. Through learning moral virtue and being
willing to make proper choices the actions in return will be good.  We are ones who must decide to want change or
do good; no one else can force us to change or do the right thing. When it
comes to moral thought and actions one
can have several ideas every day, but if we do not want to change or do the
right thing then our actions will not be
a representation of that moral thought and we will not end up doing the right


3.  Moral virtue
is something that is learned since you were born. They are learned through your
actions as a child that was considered
good by your parents or by your parents practicing good ethical ways to be.
This is a thing that you grow and learn throughout your life with the many
experiences and knowledge you pick up and view throughout your life.


4.  We as human
beings all have good ideas and have the freedom
to choose our own actions, but in a sense just having an idea does not
constitute an action will follow that idea. In reference, the issue of moral
intent and moral actions comes into play. We all have the moral intent to want
to do good, but we do not follow through on those moral actions that prove that
we are good. To achieve these so-called
moral actions or actions in general one must follow through with these three
components known as ownership, efficacy, and courage. Ownership is the extent
to how we feel towards the responsibility for
the ethical portion of our own actions. Efficacy is the belief in our ability
to do the right thing and get others to do the same. Courage is the ability to overcome
fear and act even though you may fail. Once these components are in line we can
go out and not only help ourselves to produce moral action but also help other people to do the same. To accomplish
that we must lead by example, suggest goals, give proper feedback, be
supportive, take advantage of laziness and keep them focused, and develop a
support network.   



Essays- No word limit- but answer the questions in


1.  A Parole
Fugitive at Princeton

The student
was morally wrong for committing the act of falsifying the documents to get
into school. This is one thing that brings
his moral virtue into question, but in the long run,
he did do something to make a better life for himself.


Misrepresentation at MIT




3.  Presidential
Exit Ethics